This paper presents a study of group cohesion as it arises in online small group different time and place collaboration. Cohesion is modeled in terms of the extent to which a group makes progress together through contentful and meaningful collaborative interactions. This paper makes the case that cohesion in a small group working collaboratively online emerges as a result of the overall level of engagement settled into by the group. As students participate in a collaborative task, they make choices in the extent and way in which they engage in a particular aspect of that task. The choices made by students in how to engage determine the scope and quality of the cohesion that emerges. Data were collected from a one-semester course where students worked on design problems in an online, different time and place, community in small groups. The collective pattern of engagement gives insights into characteristics of the cohesion that emerges within the community and within each small group.
International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
Capturing the dynamic and cyclical nature of regulation: Methodological Progress in understanding socially shared regulation in learning
Self-regulation is critical for successful learning, and socially shared regulation contributes to productive collaborative learning. The problem is that the psychological processes at the foundation of regulation are invisible and, thus, very challenging to understand, support, and influence. The aim of this paper is to review the progress in socially shared regulation research data collection methods for trying to understand the complex process of regulation in the social learning context, for example, collaborative learning and computer-supported collaborative learning. We highlight the importance of tracing the sequential and temporal characteristics of regulation in learning by focusing on data for individual- and group-level shared regulatory activities that use technological research tools and by gathering in-situ data about students’ challenges that provoke regulation of learning. We explain how we understand regulation in a social context, argue why methodological progress is needed, and review the progress made in researching regulation of learning.
Are we together or not? The temporal interplay of monitoring, physiological arousal and physiological synchrony during a collaborative exam
The coordination of cognitive and non-cognitive interactive processes contributes to successful collaboration in groups, but it is hard to evidence in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Monitoring is a metacognitive process that can be an indicator of a student’s ability to recognize success or failure in collaboration. This study focuses on how monitoring occurs in CSCL during a collaborative exam situation by examining how individual student contributions to monitoring processes are related to physiological synchrony and physiological arousal in groups. The participants were organized in four groups of three members each, and they wore sensors that measured their physiological activity. The data consist of video recordings from collaborative exam sessions lasting 90 minutes and physiological data captured from each student with Empatica 4.0 sensors. The video data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify monitoring events. Students’ physiological arousal was determined through peak detection, and physiological concordance was used as an index for the students’ physiological synchrony. The individual and group level analysis investigated arousal and physiological synchrony in concordance with monitoring during the collaborative exam. The results showed that, in each group, each student contributed to joint monitoring. In addition, the monitoring activities exhibited a significant correlation with the arousal, indicating that monitoring events are reflected in physiological arousal. Physiological synchrony occurred within two groups, which experienced difficulties during the collaborative exam, whereas the two groups who had no physiological synchrony did not experience difficulties. It is concluded that physiological synchrony may be a new indicator for recognizing meaningful events in CSCL