ETR&D

Promoting computational thinking of both sciences- and humanities-oriented students: an instructional and motivational design perspective

1 day 10 hours ago
Abstract

We proposed to investigate whether properly calibrated e-learning environments can efficiently promote computational thinking of both sciences- and humanities-oriented people. We invited two groups of students (sciences- vs. humanities-oriented members) to participate in a six-stage learning session: to watch a folk-dance illustration (s1) and an animation (s2) of the bubble-sort algorithm; to reconstruct the algorithm on the same input (s3); to orchestrate the algorithm on a random input stored in a white(s4)/black(s5) array (visible/invisible sequence) and to watch a parallel simulation of several sorting algorithms as they work side-by-side on different color-scale bars (s6). To assess the current motivation of students we created nine specific questionnaires (Q1–9). The experiment we conducted included the following task sequence: Q1–2, s1, Q3, s2, Q4, s3, Q5, s4, Q6, s5, Q7, s6, Q8–9. We focused on assessing the motivational contributions of the generated (situational factors) emotions, challenge and active involvement during the e-learning experience. Research results revealed that there are no unbridgeable differences in the way these two groups relate to e-learning processes that aim to promote computational thinking. Although sciences-oriented students’ motivational-scores were consistently superior to their humanities-oriented colleagues, there was strong correlation between them; furthermore, differences diminished as both groups advanced with their learning tasks.

From digital literacy to digital competence: the teacher digital competency (TDC) framework

6 days 10 hours ago
Abstract

Over the years, a variety of frameworks, models and literacies have been developed to guide teacher educators in their efforts to build digital capabilities in their students, that will support them to use new and emerging technologies in their future classrooms. Generally, these focus on advancing students’ skills in using ‘educational’ applications and digitally-sourced information, or understanding effective blends of pedagogical, content and technological knowledge seen as supporting the integration of digital resources into teaching, to enhance subject learning outcomes. Within teacher education institutions courses developing these capabilities are commonly delivered as standalone entities, or there is an assumption that they will be generated by technology’s integration in other disciplines or through mandated assessment. However, significant research exists suggesting the current narrow focus on subject-related technical and information skills does not prepare students adequately with the breadth of knowledge and capabilities needed in today’s classrooms, and beyond. This article presents a conceptual framework introducing an expanded view of teacher digital competence (TDC). It moves beyond prevailing technical and literacies conceptualisations, arguing for more holistic and broader-based understandings that recognise the increasingly complex knowledge and skills young people need to function ethically, safely and productively in diverse, digitally-mediated environments. The implications of the framework are discussed, with specific reference to its interdisciplinary nature and the requirement of all faculty to engage purposefully and deliberately in delivering its objectives. Practical suggestions on how the framework might be used by faculty, are presented.

Expansive framing as pragmatic theory for online and hybrid instructional design

1 week 2 days ago
Abstract

This article explores the complex question of how instruction should be framed (i.e., contextualized). Reports from the US National Research Council reveal a broad consensus among experts that most instruction should be framed with problems, examples, cases, and illustrations. Such framing is assumed to help learners connect new knowledge to broader “real world” knowledge, motivate continued engagement, and ensure that learners can transfer their new knowledge to subsequent contexts. However, different theories of learning lead to different assumptions about when such frames should be introduced and how such frames should be created. This article shows how contemporary situative theories of learning argue that frames should be (a) introduced before instructional content, (b) generated by learners themselves, (c) used to make connections with people, places, topics, and times beyond the boundaries of the course, and (d) used to position learners as authors who hold themselves and their peers accountable for their participation in disciplinary discourse. This expansive approach to framing promises to support engagement with disciplinary content that is productive (i.e., increasingly sophisticated, raising new questions, recognizing confusion, making new connections, etc.) and generative (i.e., supporting transferable learning that is likely to be useful and used in a wide range of subsequent educational, professional, achievement, and personal contexts). A framework called Participatory Learning and Assessment (PLA) is presented that embeds expansively framed engagement within multiple levels of increasing formal assessments. This paper first summarizes PLA as theory-laden design principles. It then presents PLA as fourteen more prescriptive steps that some may find easier to implement, allowing them to learn as they go. Examples are presented from several courses from an extended program of design-based research using this approach in online and hybrid secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and technical courses.

Why does technology integration fail? Teacher beliefs and content developer assumptions in an Indian initiative

2 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

This paper explores technology integration and the role of teacher beliefs in this integration to assess a ‘smart-class’ initiative that was introduced in 3173 Grade 7–8 classrooms of 1609 public schools in India in 2017. It first reports on the impact of the initiative at the end of its first year, using a sample of 2574 children drawn from 155 project schools and 155 non-project schools. A two-level multivariate analysis did not indicate any significant effect of the project on student subject knowledge, attitude towards subject and subject self-efficacy beliefs. A follow-up interpretive study that used the open-ended responses of 170 project teachers and four in-depth case studies revealed that the e-content supplied supported some traditional beliefs of teachers while challenging others; the latter, however, led to resistance that hindered learning processes. Thus, both support and challenge seem to have led to a reproduction of the traditional classroom, resulting in no significant differences in outcomes between project and non-project classrooms. The paper calls for greater awareness among content developers of how their beliefs can subvert technology integration, and for supportive professional development of teachers that will help them incorporate technology in their pedagogical practice.

Examining the hard, peer, and teacher scaffolding framework in inquiry-based technology-enhanced learning environments: impact on academic achievement and group performance

2 weeks 3 days ago
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine how students’ academic achievement and group performance related to their perceptions of the usefulness of hard, peer, and teacher scaffolds. A single instrumental case approach that integrated quantitative and qualitative analysis was employed for this study, which involved data gathered from 163 students in a ninth-grade biology course. Statistical results suggest that the students’ perceived usefulness of hard scaffolding, followed by peer scaffolding, was the most significant variable to predict individual academic achievement. However, only the perceived usefulness of peer scaffolding was found to be a significant predictor of group performance. This finding empirically points to the positive impact that student perceptions of the usefulness of hard, peer, and teacher scaffolds may have on students’ individual academic achievement and group performance in IBL (inquiry-based learning) activities.

Identifying patterns in students’ scientific argumentation: content analysis through text mining using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

2 weeks 5 days ago
Abstract

Constructing scientific arguments is an important practice for students because it helps them to make sense of data using scientific knowledge and within the conceptual and experimental boundaries of an investigation. In this study, we used a text mining method called Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to identify underlying patterns in students written scientific arguments about a complex scientific phenomenon called Albedo Effect. We further examined how identified patterns compare to existing frameworks related to explaining evidence to support claims and attributing sources of uncertainty. LDA was applied to electronically stored arguments written by 2472 students and concerning how decreases in sea ice affect global temperatures. The results indicated that each content topic identified in the explanations by the LDA— “data only,” “reasoning only,” “data and reasoning combined,” “wrong reasoning types,” and “restatement of the claim”—could be interpreted using the claim–evidence–reasoning framework. Similarly, each topic identified in the students’ uncertainty attributions— “self-evaluations,” “personal sources related to knowledge and experience,” and “scientific sources related to reasoning and data”—could be interpreted using the taxonomy of uncertainty attribution. These results indicate that LDA can serve as a tool for content analysis that can discover semantic patterns in students’ scientific argumentation in particular science domains and facilitate teachers’ providing help to students.

Understanding students’ game experiences throughout the developmental process of the number navigation game

3 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

Serious games for learning have received increased attention in recent years. However, empirical studies on students’ gaming experiences throughout the developmental process of serious games and discussions regarding game design are missing. The aims of the present study were to analyze students’ gaming experiences while playing four consecutive versions of the Number Navigation Game (NNG)—a mathematical game-based learning environment focusing on flexibility and adaptivity with whole-number arithmetic; and to provide an extensive review of the NNG developmental and design process over 3 years with focus on how and why the design decisions were made, and how those choices affected students’ gaming experiences. The study employed a mixed-methods design of quantitative and qualitative research. The Game Experience Questionnaire about eight core game experience dimensions was answered by different groups of students at primary schools in Finland in three different experiments after students played four versions of the NNG from 2014 to 2016. Six semi structured interviews related to students’ game experiences, preferences and game features of the latest version of NNG were conducted. Overall, results indicate that improvement in game’s usability and clarity in the user interface has positive impacts on students’ game experiences. Furthermore, there seems to be a clear advantage in having better aesthetics and value in improving extrinsic elements that could contribute to maintain players’ enthusiasm and situational interest in serious games.

Paraphrasing refutation text and knowledge form: examples from repairing relational database design misconceptions

3 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

This experimental study examined the effects of conceptual change-oriented refutation text (RT) on declarative knowledge and conceptual knowledge. Information Science undergraduates (N = 66) enrolled in two sections of a course with different instructors but the same syllabus were randomly assigned to one of four RT treatments that included read only vs. reading plus paraphrasing, with either set 1 or set 2 RTs, each RT set addressed five separate misconceptions. Pretest and posttest assessed the declarative and conceptual aspects of all ten misconceptions. For conceptual knowledge, pretest-to-posttest results show that reading and paraphrasing RTs is superior to only reading the RTs (ES = .40). Unexpectedly, conceptual knowledge improved for all misconceptions, both for the assigned RTs as well as those not assigned, thus RTs had a broad structural rather than a narrow attentional influence. However, declarative knowledge scores significantly and substantially decreased from pretest-to-posttest, indicating that the conceptual gains observed here came at the cost of declarative knowledge. Misconceptions are represented here as multiword chunks using a Pathfinder network approach, and conceptual improvement is explained as the effects of refutation text as a form of structural feedback acting on these chunks. Future research is needed to further consider the effects of addressing multiple misconceptions at once, and also on how RTs impact different kinds of learning outcomes.

Effects of lecture video styles on engagement and learning

3 weeks 2 days ago
Abstract

Lecture videos are an integral part of distance education. Much has been done to investigate the effects of lecture video styles, but many of the studies have methodological issues and confounding variables. The current study focused on the amount of motion in two types of lecture videos (hand-drawn and narration-over-PowerPoint) and investigated motion’s effect on learners’ perceived engagement and learning outcome. Participants watched lecture videos with varying amount of within-video motion, rated the engagement levels of the videos, and completed recall and knowledge transfer tasks. The study was conducted in a laboratory setting that simulated an online learning environment. Our findings indicate that a hand-drawn type of lecture video was rated as most engaging and supported recall performance of individuals with low prior knowledge of content materials. Knowledge transfer performance was affected by learners’ prior knowledge but not by the amount of motion in lecture videos. Pedagogical implications are described in the discussion section.

Technology infusion in K-12 classrooms: a retrospective look at three decades of challenges and advancements in research and practice

3 weeks 2 days ago
Abstract

Educational technology offers unique affordances as a learning tool and delivery system for enhancing and personalizing instruction. Over the past two decades, efforts by school districts and states to infuse technology into everyday K-12 education through one-to-one laptop initiatives have rapidly proliferated. In this paper, I examine such initiatives from studies in the literature and from my own research, starting with the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow in the mid-1980′s and continuing today with comprehensive mixed-method evaluations in school districts. Drawing from this work, I focus on several themes that create both challenges and opportunities for technology infusion to occur in more effective and sustainable ways. These include: (a) conceptualizing technology as an educational tool and delivery system, not as a “treatment” in itself; (b) defining and communicating to stakeholders what proximal and long-term outcomes the technology initiative is (and is not) expected to promote; (c) not over-promising impacts on student achievement on standardized assessments where technology applications are directed primary toward other educational goals; and (d) conducting ongoing evaluation studies to provide evidence of program implementation progress and effectiveness at different phases of the initiative.

University students’ online learning attitudes and continuous intention to undertake online courses: a self-regulated learning perspective

4 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

Studies have been conducted on university students’ continuous intention to learn online from the perspectives of learning motivation and capability, perceptions or attitudes, and online learning experiences. However, few have examined how the above factors will relate to each other and contribute to students’ online learning intention. This research explored 94 university students’ online learning attitudes and experiences in a blended course. The researchers investigated the changes in the participants’ attitudes toward online learning and the relationships between their self-regulated learning capability, online interactions, attitudes, and online learning intention. These students participated in a pre- and post-survey at the beginning and end of the course. They also completed six weekly reports commenting on their learning activities of the week. At the end of the course, interviews were administered to eight participants to gather detailed information about their online learning experiences. It was found that (a) the participants’ online learning attitudes were generally positive and increased when completing the course; and (b) the participants’ continuous intention to learn online was significantly predicted by four self-regulatory factors and attitudes, mediated through perceived online social interactions. The analysis of the interviewees’ further comments provided more insights about the potential factors contributing to their online learning attitude changes. The strategies for future online course design with a view of improving students’ self-regulated learning skills are discussed in this paper.

Implementing an adaptive intelligent tutoring system as an instructional supplement

1 month ago
Abstract

Evidence is emerging that technology-based curricula and adaptive learning systems can personalize students' learning experiences and facilitate development of mathematical skills. Yet, evidence of efficacy in rigorous studies for these blended instructional models is mixed. These studies highlight challenges implementing the systems in classrooms, which may contribute to a lack of consistently positive effects on student learning. This article extends the literature by closely examining implementation models and dosage levels for a supplemental software, two gaps in existing research. It also investigates adherence to the core components of the software, and extent to which the supplement enabled personalized instruction. The study was conducted in 40 algebra I classes in an urban school district. Sixty-two percent of classes implemented models that integrated instructional modalities. There was mixed adherence to core components of the software in classes that used it. In the vast majority of classes (94%), software did not enable personalized instruction. Software and the existing curricula were largely independent and did not inform each other. Only one class implemented an integrated instructional model, adhered to the core design components of the software, and demonstrated high levels of personalized instruction. Findings identify implementation barriers and offer suggestions for future implementations and studies of technology-enabled personalization.

A meta-analysis of signaling principle in multimedia learning environments

1 month ago
Abstract

Signals (or cues) are added to multimedia learning materials to guide learners’ attention to critical elements of the materials. Yet, research on signaling has produced mixed findings on learning outcomes. On the one hand, some studies have reported positive effects of signaling on the performance of learning outcomes (e.g., Jamet in Hum Behav 32:47–53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.11.013, 2014). On the other hand, some studies have found that signaling did not improve performance on learning-related outcomes (e.g., Mayer and DaPra in J Exp Psychol 18(3):239–252, https://doi.org/10.1037/a002861670, 2012). The present meta-analysis seeks to (a) resolve the mixed findings in signaling research, (b) examine the effects on signaling on learning outcomes, and (c) identify potential moderating variables. Following an exhaustive search for studies meeting specified design criteria, 44 independent effect sizes were extracted from 29 experimental studies involving 2726 participants. Studies were coded on features, such as participants (e.g., grade level), presentation (e.g., pacing), and methodology (e.g., quality of the study). Results indicated that signaling is associated with increased learning outcomes (d = .38, p < .01), with effect sizes varying from small to large. This overall effect was moderated by study, participant, presentation, and methodological features. For example, beneficial effects on learning outcomes were found when studies were high in quality, reported the reliability of outcomes, use pretest, and control for differences in prior knowledge. The findings have significant implications for educators and instructional designers as well as for multimedia researchers.

BE COOL! a digital learning environment to challenge and socially include gifted learners

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

This paper describes the development of the BE COOL! learning environment that gives all children, gifted and non-gifted, the opportunity to learn at a level matching their specific needs and abilities within the social context of regular education. BE COOL! uses the ability-adjusted jigsaw method, in which children of varying ability levels work together on a design for which they acquire knowledge by working on tailored assignments in groups with children with the same ability level. This differentiation method unites elements of learning by design, learning together, and learning by inquiry. In this article, we first present the conceptual foundations underlying BE COOL! Next, we describe the learning environment and its components as incorporated in a seven-week science lesson series in which fourth to sixth graders must design a liveable house on the moon for a family of four. Then, we describe our design process, in which research and development alternated and we end with a brief presentation of the learning environment’s added value for educational practice.

Gifted students’ learning experiences in systematic game development process in after-school activities

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

The purpose of this research is to investigate students’ learning experiences in a systematic game development process. The study was conducted at a science and arts center, where gifted students can enroll in after-school activities. Fifteen students and one instructor participated in a 12-week problem-solving implementation. During the last five weeks of the process, the students were engaged in developing educational computer games based on a game design model. Our findings showed that the game design model used in the study allowed the students to become aware of professional game development activities, such as identifying a target audience, prototyping, and evaluation. Furthermore, this game design model enabled a more systematic and faster implementation of the game development activity. The results of the research also showed that game development activity yielded important educational outcomes for the students to become skillful at problem-solving and convey their feelings/thoughts to the artifacts through the experience of the design process.

Using failure cases to promote veterinary students’ problem-solving abilities: a qualitative study

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Failure is an inevitable human experience, which can offer great learning opportunities. Yet, in current educational contexts, failure has largely been eschewed to minimize students’ frustration and confusion. Such a failure-avoidance approach is also reflected in the cases used for instruction. To maximize learning, more studies are needed to explore effective ways to better utilize failure cases for educational purposes. This qualitative study aimed to explore how students perceived their experience of learning a case-based online module that uses failure cases and discover in what ways using failure cases in the module impacted students' perceived learning experience. To answer the research questions, 16 3rd-year veterinary students were recruited for individual interviews. Learning experience survey data and students' written responses to reflection and review questions embedded in the module were collected from 38 students. Through thematic analysis of the interview data and students' written responses, three themes regarding students' learning experience were identified, including engaged in the module both cognitively and emotionally, enjoyed listening to experts' feedback, and eye-opening and reassuring experience of hearing experts' failure stories, which were supported by survey results. Regarding the impact of using failure cases on students' perceived learning experience, four major themes are identified including enhancing engagement, emotional reassurance and confidence builder, creating bigger impact, and encouraging improvement. Based on the discussions of the findings of the study, implications for instructional design regarding the use of failure cases are provided to help educators create more effective case-based learning environments.

Designing theory

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Theoretical work is essential to the progress of any discipline. Theories, models, and frameworks are underdetermined representations of a phenomenon that help us understand and take action in a domain. However, the field of learning design and technology (LDT) has traditionally struggled with developing a solid theoretical foundation that is useful for both research and practice. We propose viewing theory building as an act of design might address these challenges. After defining key constructs and describing two approaches to theory development, we describe three design perspectives that might be useful for theory development: Lawson and Dorst’s (Design expertise, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2009) view of design as a combination of analytical (problem-based) and creative (solution-based) moves, Schön’s (The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action, Basic Books, New York, 1983) reflection-in-action, and design as dialogic interpretation (Snodgrass and Coyne in Des Issues 9(1):56–74, https://doi.org/10.2307/1511599, 1992). We use a case study to illustrate each perspective. We conclude with implications of a design approach to theory creation, including how design perspectives enable scholars to design possible futures.

Self-directed learning in MOOCs: exploring the relationships among motivation, self-monitoring, and self-management

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Given that massive open online learning courses (MOOCs) are considerably different from traditional classrooms in terms of roles and responsibilities of instructors and learners, successful learners are required to be self-directed in MOOC learning environments. One of the most popular self-directed learning (SDL) models proposed by Garrison (Adult Education Quarterly 48(1):18–33, https://doi.org/10.1177/074171369704800103, 1997) includes three components: motivation, self-monitoring, and self-management. This model was originally discussed from traditional online and face-to-face learning environment. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship among motivation, self-monitoring, and self-management in MOOCs by surveying 322 MOOC learners. Using structural equation modeling, this study found that motivation directly affected self-monitoring and indirectly influenced self-management through self-monitoring. In addition, self-monitoring positively influenced self-management. Therefore, promoting student self-monitoring skills and motivating students is critical. Additional research is needed on the ways to facilitate and support self-monitoring of MOOC learners. Future research could examine the influence of the three elements of SDL on learning achievement and engagement. In addition, further exploration of learner behaviors in MOOCs could provide insights on facilitating learners’ SDL.

Effect of the flipped classroom on the mathematics performance of middle school students

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

With advances in learning technologies, new pedagogical models are being developed to improve students’ learning performance. One notable model is the flipped classroom, which has attracted the attention of many researchers, particularly in K-12 education. However, research on effective approaches for managing the flipped classroom model to improve mathematics learning is lacking. This study explored approaches to manage the flipped classroom in a Chinese context and designed an approach to improve the mathematical learning performance of middle school students. In a flipped classroom teaching and learning, students took notes while watching videos at home and then teacher utilized the notes for in-class discussion. A total of 88 sixth-grade students in a secondary school in mainland China participated in this study. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach by situating the experimental and control groups in flipped and traditional classrooms, respectively. The results show that the proposed flipped classroom approach significantly improves the students’ mathematical learning performance. The proposed approach is more beneficial to students at the middle mathematics level comparing to those at high or low levels. Furthermore, some suggestions are provided for teachers to manage flipped classroom more effectively.

Five ways to increase the effectiveness of instructional video

1 month 2 weeks ago
Abstract

This paper reviews five ways to increase the effectiveness of instructional video and one way not to use instructional video. People learn better from an instructional video when the onscreen instructor draws graphics on the board while lecturing (dynamic drawing principle), the onscreen instructor shifts eye gaze between the audience and the board while lecturing (gaze guidance principle), the lesson contains prompts to engage in summarizing or explaining the material (generative activity principle), a demonstration is filmed from a first-person perspective (perspective principle), or subtitles are added to a narrated video that contains speech in the learner’s second language (subtitle principle). People do not learn better from a multimedia lesson when interesting but extraneous video is added (seductive details principle). Additional work is needed to determine the conditions under which these principles apply and the underlying learning mechanisms.