ETR&D

Dynamics of learning: time-varying feedback effects within the intelligent tutoring system of structure strategy (ITSS)

3 days 9 hours ago
Abstract

The intelligent tutoring system of structure strategy (ITSS) is a web-based digital tutoring system proven to be effective in helping students recognize and use text structures to comprehend and recall texts. However, little is known about the dynamic learning processes within the ITSS. This study aims to investigate the effects of feedback dosage on lesson mastery throughout the progression of ITSS lessons. We applied a confirmatory factor analysis and extended vector autoregressive model to assess the dynamic relationships among three tasks embedded within the ITSS and found: (1) significant cross-regression effects among the three reading tasks; (2) distinct effects of feedback dosage on the specific reading task; and (3) different effect sizes of feedback across lessons. Results provide helpful insights on ways to design better modules in further development of the ITSS.

Development and validation of a life skills evaluation tool for online learning based on the framework of the capability approach

4 days 9 hours ago
Abstract

The promotion of life skills in learners is especially challenging in distance and online environments where the learners’ physical absence from the classroom hinders the evaluation of these types of skills. Due to the great challenges brought about by this physical absence, there is a lack of empirical studies attempting to examine life skills in web-based scenarios. This study therefore aimed to fill the existing gap in operationalizing the role of life skills for online learning through the capability approach (CA). This exploration was conducted under the umbrella of Nussbaum’s version of the CA. Specifically, our study contributes by devising an integrative and comprehensive teaching and learning framework for open educational practices based on the CA, and by introducing a new instrument that has been adapted to this context. Methodologically, the design and validation of the instrument involved a four-stage process. First, Nussbaum’s list of central human capabilities was operationalized for online learning. Then, in the second stage, a qualitative content validity check was performed to verify whether the instrument was appropriate and comprehensive in terms of what it was intended to measure. The aim of the third and fourth stages was to quantitatively assess the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. For the third stage, the instrument was pre-tested through a modified version of the Q-sort method. In the fourth stage, non-parametric tests were used to validate the internal consistency and content validity of the questionnaire. Thirty experts from the areas of online education, philosophy, and statistics took part in these stages.

Which types of learners are suitable for augmented reality? A fuzzy set analysis of learning outcomes configurations from the perspective of individual differences

1 week 5 days ago
Abstract

Considering the individual differences in previous content knowledge, skill, and attitude, which types of learners are suitable for AR is a valuable but complex question. The study used quasi-experimental design, and divided 97 10th-grade students into two groups: traditional group (N = 48) and AR group (N = 49), who participated in 4-week organic microstructure teaching. Pre-test, post-test, delayed test, and remedy test were used to collect data of students’ individual differences (foundation of learning in chemistry, spatial ability, and attitude towards AR) and learning (immediate and lasting) outcomes. Whether AR is used or not and three individual differences were taken as causal conditions, which jointly influence the learning outcomes. FsQCA was used to deal with the non-linear and asymmetric relationship among the causal conditions, and to obtain the configurations of good or poor learning outcomes. The results show that, (i) using AR usually contributes to a sufficient configuration of good learning outcomes, (ii) especially is beneficial to lasting learning outcomes, (iii) but it is still not the necessary condition, and (iv) using AR by some types of students causes poor outcomes instead. Which types of students are suitable or not suitable to use AR is also be discussed. The study emphasizes the importance of personalized use of educational technology.

Does information and communication technology (ICT) empower teacher innovativeness: a multilevel, multisite analysis

1 week 5 days ago
Abstract

The strong connection between information and communication technology (ICT) and educational innovation has been acknowledged by literature, and previous studies have shown the effects of various ICT factors on teacher innovativeness, but international evidence seems to come much later. Based on a three-level research framework, this study uses data from 42 countries participating in the 2018 round of Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) to examine the relationships between ICT-related factors and teacher innovativeness, and how ICT use for teaching mediates the relationships. The results of three-level modeling demonstrate those significant predictors, including ICT element in formal education, ICT element in professional development, ICT self-efficacy, and the ICT use for teaching, all at the teacher level but not the school or country level. The results of three-level mediation modeling support the mediation role of the ICT use for teaching and uncover three indirect paths at the teacher level. Implications for how to enhance teacher innovativeness by facilitating ICT integration are discussed.

Effects of gamified interactive e-books on students’ flipped learning performance, motivation, and meta-cognition tendency in a mathematics course

1 week 5 days ago
Abstract

It is widely recognized that flipped learning has great potential for enhancing students’ conceptual understanding through the reversed arrangement of before-class learning activities and in-class settings. However, this approach also raises the challenge of students having to obtain the learning content by themselves, especially for abstract concepts such as fractions, where students frequently encounter problems in mathematics education. In this study, we proposed a gamified interactive e-book approach to supporting a flipped mathematics classroom. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a quasi-experimental study was implemented in an elementary school mathematics course. There were three groups: the students who adopted the gamified interactive e-book in the mathematical flipped classroom (the GIEBFL group), the students who learned with conventional flipped learning (the CFL group), and those who learned with traditional instruction (the TI group). The results from a paper-and-pencil test indicated that the GIEBFL students significantly outperformed the CFL and TI students. In addition, the questionnaire of students’ learning motivation showed that the GIEBFL students had better motivation than the CFL and TI students. Also, the GIEBFL students achieved significantly higher meta-cognition tendency than the TI students.

Designing for robot-mediated interaction among culturally and linguistically diverse children

1 week 6 days ago
Abstract

This qualitative study explored the design and implementation of a humanoid social robot that mediated collaborative interactions among culturally and linguistically diverse kindergarten children in a US school. The robotic mediation was designed to help children have positive interactions with one another. The study was grounded in theories of childhood development, intercultural communication, and culturally responsive pedagogy. Design research and ethnographic qualitative research methods were used to design, test, and improve the robot’s mediation skills over a ten-week period of active use in a real-world classroom setting. Findings describe the challenges we faced in designing robot-mediated interaction activities as well as the solutions we implemented through repeated ethnographic observations, summarized as (1) anticipating children’s communication styles with flexible design, (2) inviting children to participate with personalized, friend-like communication, (3) enhancing engagement with familiar contexts, and (4) embracing language diversity with a bilingual robot.

Adoption of mobile social media for learning among Chinese older adults in senior citizen colleges

4 weeks ago
Abstract

Mobile social media are increasingly being used in education. They provide an effective way to address the imbalance between teaching supply and demand for older adults. However, few studies have investigated which factors contribute to older adults’ intention to use mobile social media for learning. This study uses a sequential explanatory mixed method to investigate the factors impacting older Chinese adults’ adoption of mobile social media for learning. Results of the quantitative phase indicated that Technology Anxiety (TA), Self-efficacy (SE), Previous Experience (PE), and Subjective Norm (SN) had significant effects on Perceived Usefulness (PU). TA, SE, PE, and Facilitating Conditions (FC) had significant effects on Perceived Ease of Use (PEU). PU and PEU are significant predictors of Behavioral Intention (BI), and PEU had a positive effect on PU. In the qualitative study, the significant effects of these extension factors on PU and/or PEU were investigated further. Perceptions and concerns about using mobile social media for learning were analyzed based on the participants’ interview data. On the basis of these results, recommendations are made to promote the use of mobile social media for learning by older adults. Specifically, teachers and colleges should: (a) select appropriate social media applications and set up relevant courses, and (b) supply inexpensive network service and high-quality learning support service. These research results have important implications for academic researchers, senior college managers, and teachers.

The affordances of a technology-aided formative assessment platform for the assessment and teaching of English as a foreign language: an ecological perspective

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

In recent years, growing interest is shown in Technology-aided formative assessment (TAFA) and language learning. Research has shed light on the experimentation and effectiveness of various TAFA tools, focusing on their pedagogical advantages in assisting the teaching of particular linguistic skills (reading, writing, spelling, etc.). Taking an ecological perspective, this paper reports on an ethnographic case study on the various affordances perceived by a group of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers who used a learning management system “designed for Formative assessment (FA) purposes” in China. Data from interviews, teacher journals, and EFL classrooms are collected. Thematic coding of interview data shows that the platform offers a wide range of pedagogical, managerial, assessment, social, and developmental affordances for the EFL teachers, with experienced teachers in FA reporting better affordances both in quality and in quantity. This paper further proposes a model to understand how TAFA can be designed in a way that fosters EFL teaching and student learning. Implications for designing TAFA and future studies are also discussed.

Drawingvoice 2.0: classroom joint designing and Facebook interactions to develop reflexivity and awareness

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Drawingvoice 2.0 is an instructional method of collaborative pencil and paper drawing to use in the school classroom, followed by Facebook interaction on the drawing produced in class. It is based on a participatory and meta reflective approach, explicitly aimed at deconstructing, negotiating, and reconstructing the meaning that students attribute to themselves regarding their professional expectations and educational pathways. In particular, the collaborative pencil and paper drawing allows for the student’s emotional symbolisation processes underlying their educational pathway. Drawingvoice 2.0 induces a multidimensional cognitive and meta-cognitive process further supported by the following interaction on Facebook. Therefore, the World Wide Web is the added resource for sharing and deepening the classmates’ discussion. Finally, Drawingvoice 2.0 supported structural group interaction and was an important supportive and instructional method to bring about transformational and developmental training practices. As the main result, in our experience, psychology students increased their reflectivity about their strengths and threats in being psychologists within their cultural contexts and potential positive resources underlying their choice. Drawingvoice 2.0 thus enhanced their self-awareness about the lights and shadows of their training and future professional career.

Improving K-12 Teachers’ Acceptance of Open Educational Resources by Open Educational Practices: A Mixed Methods Inquiry

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Teachers in K-12 settings increasingly demand instructional materials beyond textbooks to follow the upward momentum of personalized instruction. Especially during the outbreak of COVID-19, K-12 teachers are forced to quickly adapt to online teaching and thus have more difficulties of delivering personalized instruction in a relatively resource-restraint situation. Open educational resources (OER), allowing teachers to retain, reuse, revise, remix, and redistribute high-quality educational resources at no costs, can be a viable option for teachers. However, the acceptance of OER in K-12 education still remains low. Effective strategies are needed to reinforce teacher intention to adopt OER. This research showcased a two-phase sequential explanatory mixed method inquiry to investigate whether engaging K-12 teachers in open educational practices (OEP)—such as renewable assignments—increased their acceptance of OER. The quantitative phase, referring to the technology acceptance model (TAM), examined the change in factors influencing teachers’ acceptance of OER. The qualitative phase was followed up to provide supplementary perspectives of the quantitative findings. By integrating complementary findings, this research found that OEP increased teachers’ perceived ease of and self-efficacy towards using OER. Although teachers’ intention of implementing OER is not significantly improved, qualitative findings offered additional insights into the benefits of OEP in promoting OER usage and the recommended directions for future effort. Practical implications on improving teachers’ acceptance of OER in K-12 curriculum are discussed at the end.

Primary teachers’ self-assessment of their confidence in implementing digital technologies curriculum

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Technology has significantly impacted our work and leisure spaces, but education is still working to build a bridge between the technological knowledge and skills required for living now and preparing students for their future. Although a reduction in the cost of technology has led to increased access and connectivity within schools, where teachers now have a plethora of tools and resources available for them to use in teaching and learning, little has changed in classrooms. Teachers are attempting to provide effective instruction with and about digital technologies often with limited knowledge and skills themselves. This study investigated Australian primary teachers’ self-assessment of their digital technology proficiency. Through an online survey and interviews teachers were asked about their access to professional development and their knowledge and skills related to the digital technologies curriculum. This paper provides an analysis of their self-assessment. Barriers and enablers are identified along with practice implications to be considered.

Exploring students’ learning experience in online education: analysis and improvement proposals based on the case of a Spanish open learning university

1 month 4 weeks ago
Abstract

Not surprisingly, the number of online universities continues to expand—especially in Covid-19 times. These institutions all offer “online education” with diverse institutional, technological, and pedagogical processes. However, a fundamental element has to do with the experience of the students, and how they adapt to the educational model of the online university in which they are studying. In this article, we present the main results of the case-study developed in one of the most historical and relevant virtual universities in an international context. We have explored and analysed the process of adaptation to the educational model by the student body, and their perceptions of their interactions with the pedagogical, institutional, and technological elements designed to support their learning. Qualitative and quantitative methods are used to gather and analyse the data. From 1715 students who participated in the survey and the perceptions of 30 students individually interviewed, the results show positive evaluations regarding the integration and adoption of technological competencies, and also, that the online education generally serves as a responsive model to the emergent needs of the learner. However, the results also show that students have important concerns regarding the pedagogical and institutional support provided.

Cross-cultural learning in virtual reality environment: facilitating cross-cultural understanding, trait emotional intelligence, and sense of presence

1 month 4 weeks ago
Abstract

Cross-cultural learning projects were carried out in learning environments created using Web 1.0 or Web 2.0 technologies in previous related studies. However, such environments have a limited ability to provide learners with immersive learning experiences of a foreign culture and fail to make them feel virtually present in a foreign cultural context. In this study, we aimed to create such an environment, one that enables not only communication among learners from different cultures but also gives them a sense of presence and provides an immersive experience in a foreign culture without their being physically there. To this end, based on the cultural convergence theory, we designed a cross-cultural learning activity in virtual reality (VR) using a 360-degree video technology. Two groups of university students, one from China (n = 10) and the other from Uzbekistan (n = 11), who exchanged culture-related information with each other, participated in the activity. We investigated whether cross-cultural understanding and the trait emotional intelligence of the participants was facilitated after their participation in the activity. In addition, we explored the participants sense of perceived presence in the VR environment and their acceptance of VR technology. A mixed methods research approach was adopted. We analyzed the reflective journals of the participants, administered three questionnaires, and interviewed the participants. We obtained the following four findings: First, the participants had no prior knowledge of their foreign partners’ cultures and traditions before the learning activity; however, they had knowledge that they could summarize, explain, compare, and contrast at the end of the activity. Second, the comparison of the results of the pre- and post-questionnaires showed that the two trait emotional intelligence constructs (i.e., self-control and emotionality) were significantly improved from the beginning of the activity to its end. Third, the participants perceived a high level of presence in the VR environment. Finally, the participants accepted VR technology in terms of its usefulness for cross-cultural learning and ease of use. The originality of this study lies in creating cross-cultural learning environments based on a 360-degree video technology that enables communication across cultures and gives learners a sense of presence and an immersive experience. The value of the study for the literature and its contribution to theoretical knowledge is that it creates virtual cross-cultural learning environments based on a 360-degree video technology and presents evidence suggesting that the cross-cultural learning environments created in this study can facilitate cross-cultural knowledge and perceived self-control, emotionality, and sense of presence.

Visualizing the learning patterns of topic-based social interaction in online discussion forums: an exploratory study

2 months ago
Abstract

Online discussion forums are common features of learning management systems; they allow teachers to engage students in topical discussions in environments beyond physical spaces. This study presents a novel approach to operationalizing the connections between social interaction and contextual topics by visualizing posts in an online discussion forum. Using the weak ties theory, we developed a prototype of a tool that helps visualize the text-based content in online discussion forums, specifically in terms of topic relationships and student interactions. This research unveils a nuanced picture of social and topic connectivity, the nature of social interactions, and the changes in the topics being discussed when serendipity occurs. Our implementation of the tool and the results from testing show that the visualization method was able to determine that the strongly connected major topics in the discussion were related to the intended course learning outcomes, whereas the weakly connected topics could yield insights into students’ unexpected learning. The proposed method of visualization may benefit both teachers and students by helping them to efficiently the learning and teaching process and thus may contribute to formative assessment design, a collaborative learning process, and unexpected learning.

The IT2 Survey: contextual knowledge (XK) influences on teacher candidates’ intention to integrate technology

2 months 1 week ago
Abstract

Prior to this study, a testable model for the influence of contextual knowledge (XK) on teacher candidates’ intention to integrate technology into classroom instruction had not been established. We applied the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (DTPB) to aid us in this effort. Our work (a) provided a theoretical conceptualization for factors of XK through application of the DTPB, (b) represented the synergistic effects among these factors, and (c) allowed us to explore their influences on teacher candidates’ intentions to teach with technology. To assess our model, which includes factors such as teacher candidates’ beliefs, attitudes, and efficacy, we developed an instrument, the Intention to Teach with Technology (IT2) Survey. Results from the structural equation model of the survey data indicated our model fit the data very well and readily accounted for various XK factors, the relations among these factors, and their influence on teacher candidates’ intentions to integrate technology into teaching. Given the complexity of the context in any teaching situation, its relation to and influence on technology integration, and the previously limited examination of context in research and teacher development, the results indicate the proposed model is quite plausible, accounting for 75% of the variation in intention. The study demonstrates the IT2 Survey is an effective instrument to examine factors associated with XK and their influences on technology integration. Our work extends theory about technology integration by including XK and has implications for researchers as well as practitioners who seek to advance technology integration in preparation programs.

Two sides of the same coin: video annotations and in-video questions for active learning

2 months 1 week ago
Abstract

Video in education has become pervasive. Globally, educators are recording instructional videos to augment their students’ learning and, in many contexts, replace face-to-face lectures. However, the mere act of watching a video is primarily a passive learning experience likely leading to lack of student engagement hindering learning. Active learning strategies such as video annotations and in-video questions have the potential to shift the passive experience of watching an instructional video to a more active one by engaging students with learning strategies designed to promote self-regulated learning and improve content knowledge. This experimental study investigates the impact of in-video questions compared to video annotations on learning and self-efficacy in an experimental setting. Findings revealed that learners who annotated videos had higher self-efficacy than those who completed in-video questions likely due to the immediate feedback received from the in-video questions. The study further concluded that prior knowledge plays a critical role in selecting appropriate active learning strategies, suggesting that video annotations be considered when students have prior knowledge about a topic whereas in-video questions with immediate feedback be interspersed in videos when students do not have prior knowledge about a topic.

The role of hardiness in securities practitioners' web-based continuing learning: Internet self-efficacy as a mediator

2 months 2 weeks ago
Abstract

Due to the rapid changes in global economic environments, enterprises have to continually enhance their business competitiveness. To improve business, planning educational training has been regarded as a channel to educate outstanding employees. Recently, most of the companies in the securities industry in Taiwan have adopted web-based educational training as a form of employee training. However, low e-learning acceptance on the part of employees is the essential obstacle when enterprises attempt to promote web-based continuing learning. Previous studies have shown that hardiness and Internet self-efficacy may be important factors that influence whether an individual will continue with web-based learning when facing pressure. Securities practitioners are required to deal with high pressure and persist in enhancing their professional knowledge in their working environment; therefore, continuing learning is crucial to maintaining the quality of professional service. The present study recruited securities practitioners as the research participants, and examined the effects of hardiness and Internet self-efficacy on their attitudes towards web-based learning when they were participating in web-based learning. The findings revealed that securities practitioners’ hardiness and Internet self-efficacy both had direct positive effects on their attitudes towards web-based continuing learning. Meanwhile, their Internet self-efficacy had a mediating effect on the relationships between hardiness and attitudes towards web-based continuing learning.

Exploring groups’ affective states during collaborative learning: what triggers activating affect on a group level?

2 months 2 weeks ago
Abstract

During collaborative learning, affect is constantly present in groups’ interactions, influencing and shaping the learning process. The aim of this study was to understand what type of learning situations trigger affective states in collaborative groups, and how these affective states are related to group members’ physiological activation. The participants were 12-year-old primary school students (N = 31, 10 groups) performing a collaborative science task. In the analysis, video data observations were combined with data of group members’ physiological activation. The groups’ situational valence was identified based on the group members’ observed emotional expressions and their physiological activation levels were measured with electrodermal activity (EDA). Results revealed that situations with group members’ simultaneous physiological activation were rare compared with the observable emotional expressions. However, when group members indicated physiological activation simultaneously, they also showed visible emotional expressions more often than in deactivating situations. Moreover, the results showed that socially-related factors were more likely to trigger physiological activation with a mixed group level valence. In turn, task-related factors were more likely to trigger physiological activation with a neutral group level valence. The results of this study imply that by combining different process data modalities revealing the different components of affect, it might be possible to track emotionally meaningful situations that shape the course of the collaborative learning process.

A meta-analysis on the influence of gamification in formal educational settings on affective and behavioral outcomes

2 months 2 weeks ago
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gamification used in formal educational settings on student affective and behavioral outcomes. Using systematic procedures to identify and screen the manuscripts across 18 academic databases, we identified 13 studies with behavioral outcomes and 19 studies with affective outcomes employing gamification in educational settings. These manuscripts accounted for a total of N = 1974 (n = 987 in gamification, n = 987 in control) participants in the affective model, and N = 1596 (n = 760 in gamification, n = 836 in control) in the behavioral model. Employing random-effects models, we calculated two statistically significant medium overall effect sizes for affective outcomes at g = .574 [.384, .764] and for behavioral outcomes at g = .740 [.465, 1.014]. We also examined 14 different gamification design elements (e.g., leaderboards, badges, etc.) as moderators to pinpoint the conditions in which gamification may be effective. Additionally, we examined contextual elements as moderators, including the discipline, student level, and publication source. Publication bias was not identified as a threat to either the affective or behavioral model. We also provide a discussion of our findings, limitations, and suggestions for future research.

Enhancing computational thinking skills in informatics in secondary education: the case of South Korea

2 months 2 weeks ago
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the teaching–learning process of informatics education in South Korea, where an informatics education initiative was recently announced for K-12 education. Based on this initiative, this study aimed to investigate the effect of academic self-efficacy, teacher support, and a deep approach to learning computational thinking. The participants were 84 freshman students at a lower secondary school enrolled in a regular informatics class during Spring 2018. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was employed to analyze the data. The key findings were as follows: first, academic self-efficacy and teacher support had a significant influence on a deep approach to learning. Second, academic self-efficacy and a deep approach to learning had a significant influence on computational thinking. This study suggests implications for enhancing computational thinking skills in informatics in secondary education.