ETR&D

Anonymous versus public student feedback systems: metacognition and achievement with graduate learners

2 days 8 hours ago
Abstract

The aim of this repeated measures study was to examine an anonymous student feedback system (delivered using clickers) versus a public student feedback system (delivered using flashcards) on 52 graduate learners’ metacognition and academic achievement scores. Three dimensions of metacognition were examined in a large lecture setting, including Metacognitive Learning Device Attribution, Metacognitive Knowledge in Lectures, and Metacognitive Self-Regulation. Results indicated that Metacognitive Learning Device Attribution and Metacognitive Knowledge in Lectures were significantly higher in the anonymous feedback condition as hypothesized while, contrary to our hypothesis, difference in Metacognitive Self-Regulation was not significant. Also, academic achievement differences were highly significant in favor of the anonymous feedback condition. Effect sizes for the three significant dependent variables ranged from moderate to very large with the largest effect size found for academic achievement. Findings are discussed in terms of the existing literature and the study’s internal and external validity. Recommendations for future research are made.

Sustainable participatory processes of education technology development

2 days 8 hours ago
Abstract

According to UNESCO, sustainable education requires a participatory development process. This article reports the results of three case studies about sustainable education using e-learning technologies, where the focus of the analysis is on the need for sustainable and participatory development processes. The research approach is based on a meta-synthesis of three cases that target capacity-building in Maritime Education and Training using modern digital technologies. The result of the analysis is an analytical framework that describes how sustainable development of education needs to be understood as a participatory process of education and technology knowledge development taking place in layers of (1) standards, (2) applications, and (3) in-situ development, and based on an evolutionary and participatory process. The analytical framework contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between education for sustainability and sustainability of education—a relation that is recognized to be of importance, but that is also recognized as not sufficiently conceptualized. As the empirical research in this article evidences, a better understanding of sustainable development processes is of academic as well as practical relevance to build educational capacity using E-Learning technologies.

Educational theories and computer game design: lessons from an experiment in elementary mathematics education

1 week 2 days ago
Abstract

Although educational games have been used for a considerable time, their true potential for enhancing achievement and motivation is still being explored. We argue in this paper that we may get closer to realizing this potential if the theoretical underpinning of educational games is improved. We developed a simple interactive math game based on insights from cognitive load and game design theory, in which players solve mathematical problems competitively and creatively. To investigate the effects of the game on achievement and motivation, we ran an experiment with fifth- and sixth-grade students. Our results show that students who played the game achieved better math results than those who did not. We did not find any significant differences in math motivation. Another promising finding, albeit beyond the scope of our hypotheses, relates to the potential effects of math games on student behavior.

Integrating adaptivity in educational games: a combined bibliometric analysis and meta-analysis review

1 week 4 days ago
Abstract

In this synthesis, we systematically review research on educational games with adaptivity. Although an adaptive gaming experience provides personalization to learning, the complexity of design makes it difficult to evaluate its effectiveness. In this systematic review, we adopt three analytic approaches: (1) bibliometric analysis, (2) qualitative thematic analysis, and (3) meta-analysis. We identified 62 relevant publications and used bibliometric analysis to visualize the hidden conceptual structure among the articles. We then used thematic analysis to investigate the emerging themes in the research and inform the coding for meta-analysis. Twelve articles that used experimental designs were further screened to model the effect of adding adaptivity to educational games. We found that an adaptive learning condition does not produce a substantial overall effect compared to a non-adaptive condition (g = .11, p = .26). Furthermore, moderator analysis reveals that the design variability of adaptivity does not contribute as much to heterogeneity as hypothesized. However, the effect size is positive when the target outcome focuses on learning (g = .39, p < .001) and engagement (g = .41, p = .13). The effect size is negative when the target outcome focuses on game performance (g = − .27, p = .04). In addition, we find evidence for a potential publication bias based on the distribution of effect sizes.

Influence of problem-based learning games on effective computer programming learning in higher education

2 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

Gaming is a part of today’s society, especially for younger generations. Therefore, game-based approaches are unsurprisingly used for learning achievement. In this study, a game-based learning courseware was implemented using a problem-based strategy. For this purpose, a game known as ‘Programmer Adventure Land’ was designed and developed. A group of college students were asked to play the game to improve their knowledge of computer programming. Results indicated that the problem-based learning approach of the game can enhance the satisfaction, enjoyment, motivation, and user interface for the problem-based game learning courseware. The main finding of this study is that Problem-based games provide teachers with an effective approach for enhancing students’ learning satisfaction in difficult subjects, such as computer programming.

The effects of using mobile devices on language learning: a meta-analysis

2 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

Despite the rapid development of the field of Mobile-assisted Language Learning (MALL), research synthesis and systematic meta-analyses on MALL are still lacking. It remains unclear how effective mobile devices are for language learning under different conditions. Review studies on the overall effectiveness of the latest smart mobile devices are still scant. In order to evaluate the learning outcomes of MALL and the impact of moderator variables, we systematically searched journal articles, conference proceedings, and doctoral dissertations published during 2008–2018 and performed a meta-analysis based on a synthesis of 84 effect sizes from 80 experimental and quasi-experimental studies. A medium-to-high effect size of 0.722 was found for the overall effectiveness of using mobile devices for language learning. The findings indicate that the use of mobile devices for language learning is more effective than conventional methods. The effects of nine moderator variables were analyzed. The target language skill, target language and first/second language were found to be significant moderators. Implications for language teaching and research are discussed.

Social media, teenagers, and the school context: a scoping review of research in education and related fields

2 weeks 3 days ago
Abstract

This scoping review of research explores which disciplines have studied social media as it relates to education and, more broadly, use by students of high school and college age. The sample explores 10 years of research (2009–2018). A search of Web of Science yielded 580 relevant peer-reviewed articles published through the end of 2018, with 260 (44.8%) of these articles focused on education. Research in this area has been on a steady upward trajectory since 2009, the first year when relevant social media articles appeared. About half of this research was conducted in North American settings, and quantitative surveys were the most popular data collection method. Findings show that within education, the dominant themes of research on social media were use as a teaching and learning tool; adoption, use, and beliefs; digital literacy; effects of use; and identity. Outside of education, the dominant themes were negative behaviors, health issues, identity development and expression, digital citizenship, and social relationships. This review shows several areas where education researchers and practitioners would benefit from attending to research conducted outside of our discipline. Although the field of educational research sufficiently addresses issues like teacher professional development and pedagogical uses of social media, the larger issues that affect our students and, in turn, the school context are being explored in other disciplines.

An e-learning environment embedded with sign language videos: research into its usability and the academic performance and learning patterns of deaf students

2 weeks 3 days ago
Abstract

This research investigates the usability of an e-learning environment that is embedded with sign language videos and deaf students’ related academic performances and learning patterns. A mixed-methods research design was utilized, which involved the use of a usability questionnaire, performance tests, learning activities, e-learning log data, and interviews. The results revealed that the deaf students showed a moderate level of e-learning usability. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the performance tests, and the treatment used had a large effect on the deaf students’ performance. Through decision tree analysis, eleven learning patterns emerged based on the three increment categories of the deaf students’ performance. Briefly, the deaf students who achieved the best performance increment category were those who accessed the sign language videos more frequently compared to other deaf students. The findings and implications are further discussed, and possible future studies are suggested.

A comprehensive systematic review of MOOC research: Research techniques, topics, and trends from 2009 to 2019

2 weeks 6 days ago
Abstract

This study examines the research methods, topics, and trends of empirical MOOC research to gain a comprehensive understanding of the MOOC phenomenon through reviewing 541 empirical MOOCs research published from 2009 to 2019. The results indicate that: (1) the majority of studies adopted quantitative research methods followed by mixed research methods and qualitative research methods, (2) the most frequently adopted data collection method was survey, followed by platform database and interviews, (3) almost half of the studies used at least two data collection methods such as survey and interview, (4) the majority of researchers adopted descriptive statistics for data analysis, followed by inferential statistics and content analysis, (5) the research topics primarily focused on students, followed by design-focused, context and impact-focused, and instructor-focused. Among these student-focused topics, learner retention, learning experience, social learning, and engagement were the most mentioned, and (6) the affiliations of the first authors of the MOOC studies were mainly from the U.S. followed by China and Spain. Implications and future research were discussed.

An examination of personality traits as a predictor of the use of self-regulated learning strategies and considerations for online instruction

3 weeks ago
Abstract

Each learner brings a unique mix of personality traits, preferences, and talents to the educational setting. These factors can influence the extent to which learners are able to effectively deploy skills and strategies to achieve their academic goals. Gaining a deeper awareness of how specific personality traits play a role in the choice and deployment of SRL strategies provides opportunities to anticipate which learners might be effective or ineffective self-regulators. Doing so would enable instructional designers, educators, or higher education administrators to better plan and deliver effective educational experiences for a wide range of learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the use of SRL strategies was impacted by learner differences in Big Five personality traits. This mixed methods study examined the potential of utilizing the Big Five Inventory classification as a predictor of self-regulated strategy use. Specifically, the study investigated the relationship between the existence of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism traits as possible predictors of learner use of SRL strategies. Results indicated that learners high in openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were shown to be more skilled self-regulators than those high in neuroticism. Those high in neuroticism were less skilled self-regulators and tended to use help-seeking strategies more frequently than those in other personality trait categories. The qualitative findings highlighted the need for effective time management as an important self-regulation strategy, a preference for face to face versus an on-line delivery format, and a lack of motivation. However, responses did not seem to systematically vary by personality trait.

An investigation of blended learning to support reading instruction in elementary schools

3 weeks ago
Abstract

Research is needed to address the possible benefits of blended learning as a form of reading instruction in elementary schools. Blended learning combines teacher-led instruction with digital technology. We had an opportunity to evaluate the effects of blended learning for students in kindergarten through fifth grade within a charter school network. Administrators in three schools chose to adopt a blended learning program during the 2016–2017 school year. There were 2217 students in the treatment schools. Treatment students were compared to 1504 students in three control schools where the standard form of instruction was maintained. Prior to implementation of blended learning, treatment students performed significantly below control students on a standardized reading test. At the end of the school year, treatment students showed greater gains on the reading test than control students and group differences disappeared. Further analyses revealed that reading gains were uniform across grades and ethnic categories. These outcomes point to the viability of using blended learning for reading instruction in elementary schools.

Using technology in special education: current practices and trends

3 weeks 3 days ago
Abstract

Recent reports suggest an increase in the number of individuals with cognitive and developmental disabilities. To ensure equal opportunities for these learners, special education practices must be appropriately improved and scaled. Educational and assistive technologies are a possible avenue for meeting this need. To provide insight into recent technology practices in special education contexts, this study reviews recent literature (2014—2018) on the use of technology to support learners with cognitive and developmental disabilities. This review included 126 publications, which were a combination of journal articles and conference papers, found through the ACM, IEEE, ScienceDirect, and SSCI databases. The publications were analyzed to determine their general characteristics (e.g., number and age of participants and lengths of interventions), the contexts of technology use, specific learner characteristics, the subjects or skills the intervention(s) aimed to improve, the characteristics of the technologies, and the outcomes associated with their use. The results revealed that the most examined technology was games and the most studied outcome was improvements to learners’ cognitive skills. Additionally, participants in the majority of the publications were pre-college students with learning disabilities. The most studied topics belonged to the natural sciences while job skills were one of the least studied. Interventions were primarily conducted in formal educational environments and were implemented over 5–10 weeks in most cases. Based on the review, more detail in reporting and more attention to promoting life, job, and social skills are recommended.

A systematic review of mobile game-based learning in STEM education

3 weeks 4 days ago
Abstract

Research on mobile game-based learning has been gaining attention in the past few years. To understand the potential of mobile game-based learning in STEM education, a systematic review was conducted. Based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles published during the years of 2010 through 2019 were included. Analyses were conducted to identify the contexts of studies, research foci, research methodologies, measures, research instruments, the mobile game features and so on. Based on the analyses, a comprehensive understanding of the research in mobile game-based learning in STEM education was presented, and insights and directions for future research were provided. The systematic review suggests that, although current research has greatly increased our understanding of mobile game-based learning in STEM education, future research is needed to address the fundamental question of when mobile game-based learning is an appropriate approach for learning in STEM education and when is not.

A meta-analysis of wearables research in educational settings published 2016–2019

3 weeks 4 days ago
Abstract

The integration of wearables in education environments to enhance teaching and learning is an emerging area of research. However, many studies lack the rigor of formal research designs and results are inconclusive. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the overall effect of wearable use on learning and motivation outcomes and describe the characteristics of the studies that comprise the body of quantitative wearables research. Searches for wearables research were conducted in three databases resulting in 144 results with duplicates removed. Coding based on specific inclusion criteria resulted in 12 studies with 20 effect sizes published between January 2016 and August 2019. The overall weighted mean effect size for 20 learning and motivation outcomes was .6373 (SE = .1622). It should be noted that while this result was statistically significant (z = 3.9292, p = .0001) with 95% CI [.3194, 9552], the heterogeneity was also statistically significant. Additional weighted mean effect sizes relating to study characteristics were significant while meeting the assumption of homogeneity. A discussion of the findings, implications, and limitations are provided.

Exploring the influence of learners’ personal traits and perceived course characteristics on online interaction and engagement

3 weeks 5 days ago
Abstract

One of the most pressing issues in online learning systems that have contributed to the failure of online education and student dropout is the lack of interaction. Investigating and exploring the different factors that influence learners’ online interaction and engagement are crucial for e-learning success. This study proposes a research model to assess the possible impact of the student’s personal attributes and perceived course characteristics on their online interaction and engagement. The data of this study were collected by survey from 246 students who participated in online courses in one of Australia universities. Partial least squares was then used as a method to test the research model and hypotheses.

The effects of competition in digital game-based learning (DGBL): a meta-analysis

3 weeks 5 days ago
Abstract

Digital game-based learning (DGBL) is known to be widely used for improving learning in various fields. Among the elements of DGBL, competition has been very controversial. This meta-analysis, which included 25 articles written between 2008 and 2019, revealed that DGBL has produced improvements for learning outcomes with an overall effect size of .386. In addition, we explored multiple moderators to understand how competition in DGBL influenced student learning for different learners, contexts, game types, and learning outcomes. We found that competition in DGBL was effective for math, science and language, but not for social science and other subjects. It was effective for K12 students and college students. It was effective for puzzle, strategy, role-playing, and simulation, but not for action games. Finally, competition in DGBL was equally effective for cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. Through the results of this study, we fill a critical gap in the research left by recent reviews, which do not examine the role of competition; a key gaming element. In addition, we offer a number of suggestions for future studies.

Systematic review of adaptive learning research designs, context, strategies, and technologies from 2009 to 2018

3 weeks 6 days ago
Abstract

This systematic review of research on adaptive learning used a strategic search process to synthesize research on adaptive learning based on publication trends, instructional context, research methodology components, research focus, adaptive strategies, and technologies. A total of 61 articles on adaptive learning were analyzed to describe the current state of research and identify gaps in the literature. Descriptive characteristics were recorded, including publication patterns, instructional context, and research methodology components. The count of adaptive learning articles published fluctuated across the decade and peaked in 2015. During this time, the largest concentration of adaptive learning articles appeared in Computers and Education. The majority of the studies occurred in higher education in Taiwan and the United States, with the highest concentration in the computer science discipline. The research focus, adaptive strategies, and adaptive technologies used in these studies were also reviewed. The research was aligned with various instructional design phases, with more studies examining design and development, and implementation and evaluation. For examining adaptive strategies, the authors examined both adaptive sources based on learner model and adaptive targets based on content and instructional model. Learning style was the most observed learner characteristic, while adaptive feedback and adaptive navigation were the most investigated adaptive targets. This study has implications for adaptive learning designers and future researchers regarding the gaps in adaptive learning research. Future studies might focus on the increasing availability and capacities of adaptive learning as a learning technology to assist individual learning and personalized growth.

“Like, comment, and share”—professional development through social media in higher education: A systematic review

3 weeks 6 days ago
Abstract

In recent years, professional learning networks (PLNs) and online learning communities of practices (CoPs) enabled by social media have emerged as a conduit and communal space for faculty members to engage in professional learning. This systematic review provides a current synthesis of research surrounding social media and professional development in higher education. Articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2009 and 2019 were reviewed and 23 articles that met our selection criteria were included for further analysis and synthesis in this review. Findings suggest that research and practice on social media-supported professional learning is still in its infancy stage. Despite that social media-supported PLNs and CoPs show potential for contributing to faculty professional learning, challenges exist in sustaining faculty participation and engagement, as well as effectively navigating the social media space, especially for novice social media users. Practical implications and future research recommendations are discussed.

The influence of mobile technologies on preschool and elementary children’s literacy achievement: a systematic review spanning 2007–2019

3 weeks 6 days ago
Abstract

The presence of mobile technologies within preschool and elementary classrooms has been increasing, yet review studies which measure the effectiveness of mobile technologies to support children’s literacy achievement remains scarce. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review to examine the influence of mobile technologies on pre-kindergarten—5th grade students’ literacy achievement between 2007 and 2019. Findings are reported according to study characteristics, followed by the patterns and trends related to achievement within and across literacy domains (phonics, phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, writing). We provide mobile device and app use strategies for teachers, while mapping clear research pathways for educational researchers and digital designers, with the ultimate goal of advancing the use of mobile technology to improve children’s literacy achievement.

Utilising learning analytics to support study success in higher education: a systematic review

1 month ago
Abstract

Study success includes the successful completion of a first degree in higher education to the largest extent, and the successful completion of individual learning tasks to the smallest extent. Factors affecting study success range from individual dispositions (e.g., motivation, prior academic performance) to characteristics of the educational environment (e.g., attendance, active learning, social embeddedness). Recent developments in learning analytics, which are a socio-technical data mining and analytic practice in educational contexts, show promise in enhancing study success in higher education, through the collection and analysis of data from learners, learning processes, and learning environments in order to provide meaningful feedback and scaffolds when needed. This research reports a systematic review focusing on empirical evidence, demonstrating how learning analytics have been successful in facilitating study success in continuation and completion of students’ university courses. Using standardised steps of conducting a systematic review, an initial set of 6220 articles was identified. The final sample includes 46 key publications. The findings obtained in this systematic review suggest that there are a considerable number of learning analytics approaches which utilise effective techniques in supporting study success and students at risk of dropping out. However, rigorous, large-scale evidence of the effectiveness of learning analytics in supporting study success is still lacking. The tested variables, algorithms, and methods collected in this systematic review can be used as a guide in helping researchers and educators to further improve the design and implementation of learning analytics systems.