ETR&D

Learner-generated material: the effects of ubiquitous photography on foreign language speaking performance

1 week 2 days ago
Abstract

The widespread availability of mobile phones has facilitated mobile learning and ubiquitous learning in language education. Although numerous benefits have been documented, the evidence for speaking fluency enhancement is relatively scant. Firmly grounded in humans’ cognitive structure and learners’ prior knowledge, this study proposes a ubiquitous photography strategy as a form of generative learning strategy. Specifically, besides the photos in English textbooks, foreign language (FL) learners at the college level were encouraged to use their mobile phones to capture photos to practice visual prompted oral tasks. Their learning experience was measured by a self-report questionnaire, triggering their perceptions of mental effort, task complexity, and learning preferences. Their learning outcome was measured by speech analysis of their oral performance, targeting fluency, and vocabulary diversity. Data analysis revealed that ubiquitous photography induced a better learning experience and enhanced their speaking outcomes to various extents. Results contribute to the potential of integrating ubiquitous learning and generative learning strategies in FL classrooms.

The influence of external concept structures on an individual’s knowledge structures

1 week 3 days ago
Abstract

This experimental investigation considers how the inherent conceptual structure of external representations influences individuals' knowledge structure, and in addition proposes a measure of global collective knowledge to account for the influence of pre-existing knowledge structure. In two studies, undergraduates in a hospitality management course completed a pre-knowledge structure (pre KS) measure, a prior knowledge pretest, then read parallel versions of either a text or a table about the Internet of Things, then completed a post knowledge structure (post KS) measure, and finally completed a comprehension posttest. Analysis of the comprehension posttest data showed that the text group significantly outperformed the table group (p < .05) mainly due to performance on factual and main idea items, but not inference items. The pre- and post-KS data were analyzed as Pathfinder networks. Descriptive comparisons of between group networks (group–group) and within group networks (pre-post) showed that the table and text between-group networks were quite alike before reading and were even more alike after reading (i.e., peer convergence of local collective knowledge structure). The within-group network overlap from pre-to-post was also substantial. In addition, pre-to-post similarity with the expert shows the text group networks became more like the expert referent but the table group networks became less like the expert referent. Exploratory findings for this global collective knowledge network approach based on Google Ngram frequency dependencies were partially supported. For theory building, the results show how the influence of external representations can be framed in terms of a representation's inherent conceptual structure. For practice, this list-wise measure for eliciting knowledge structure provides a quick way to elicit individual and group-level knowledge structure networks that can be used in ordinary classrooms for formative and summative assessment.

The interaction effects of an instructor’s emotions in instructional videos and students’ emotional intelligence on L2 vocabulary learning

1 week 6 days ago
Abstract

Language learning has long been a topic of interest, and instructional videos which allow students to learn anywhere and anytime have become an important language learning tool. However, the emotional characteristics of both instructors and students, which have the potential to influence students’ second language learning from instructional videos, have yet to be fully explored. The current study investigated the interaction effects of an instructor’s emotions (positive vs. negative vs. neutral) and students’ emotional intelligence (low vs. high) on students’ second language vocabulary learning from instructional videos with consideration of attention paid to the learning material (i.e., average fixation time, referring to the duration of each fixation on the learning material), learning experience (i.e., motivation, engagement, interaction), and learning performance (both immediate and delayed). Results showed that (1) only the interaction effect on attention was verified, and that (2) students with high emotional intelligence showed a larger average fixation time in the positive condition than in the negative condition, while (3) students with low emotional intelligence showed a smaller average fixation time in the neutral condition than in the negative condition. Furthermore, the results verified the benefits of the instructor’s positive emotion on students’ motivation, interaction, and immediate performance. Our findings shine a light onto the influence of an instructor’s emotions and students’ emotional intelligence on second language learning, and provide practical implications for the design of instructional videos and second language learning.

Development of the Design Thinking and Instructional Lessons (DTAIL) model: a creative approach for teachers

2 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

The educational landscape continues to become increasingly complex, which suggests a need for a teacher-driven creative approach to developing instructional lessons. This article introduces the Design Thinking and Instructional Lessons (DTAIL) model and describes its three-phase development. In Phase I, the Design Thinking literature and the first draft of the model are described. In Phase II and III, two design studies conducted with STEM K-12 public school and community college in-service teachers participating in summer research experience for teachers (RET) programs in the United States are described. In addition, during the second design study, ten teacher-participants were observed as they implemented their lessons and were interviewed concerning how and to what extent they perceived the DTAIL model to resonate with their approach to developing instructional lessons. Revisions to the model were made based on data analysis from those three design phases. Findings suggest that Design Thinking models that facilitate teacher-driven design of instructional lessons might usefully include design stages with an explicit depiction of rotation and recursiveness. In addition, Design Thinking models should also depict (1) iteration, reflection, and revision; (2) a chaotic fluctuating problem–solution space, and (3) circling backward to eventually narrow the problem space toward a satisficed solution. Furthermore, the majority of teacher-participants found the DTAIL model to resonate with their approach to developing instructional lessons.

Can videos affect learning outcomes? Evidence from an actual learning environment

2 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

We examine the effect of an innovation in an educational context, a class of 500 + first-year economics students at a well-known Australian university. We study whether introducing content in the form of a multimedia presentation has a detectable effect on specific categories of student knowledge. The multimedia presentation has a narrator presenting concepts with images, words, and worked examples. Our key outcome measure is the probability of answering questions correctly on a mid-term test. A quasi-experimental design is followed to offer a causal interpretation of the results. We find that the multimedia presentation markedly increases students’ academic outcomes on the test compared to those that did not view the presentation, especially in regards to procedural and evaluative knowledge. An additional survey reveals gains in students’ metacognitive knowledge. These findings suggest that multimedia presentations contribute to improved student learning outcomes and offer valuable options at a time of increased online course delivery. The findings also highlight the relevance of investing in education and resources to develop the necessary design skills among academics and staff.

Empathy and empathic design for meaningful deliverables

2 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

With the challenges of a global pandemic, political and social unrest, and the consequences these issues bring, there is a universal call for empathy as we attempt to maneuver through this tumultuous time. For instructional designers, this includes employing empathy and empathic design as they grapple with how to design instructional interventions for learners. Empathy is the first stage in the design thinking process, now a popular buzz word in design research and practice. It suggests that empathy results in a design that meets the audience needs. But how do we know if this is true? As professors of instructional design and researchers of design practice, we teach empathy for action as a means for design students to act by producing a meaningful design deliverable. Over a 15-week semester, we taught and measured designer empathy and empathic design with 31 graduate students while they worked in design teams, participating in authentic design projects with two nonprofit organizations. Results indicate that 75% of the instances of empathy were students showing sensitivity to the end-learners’ experiences and situations, 52% were directed toward identifying with the end-learners’ thoughts and feelings. This did not necessarily translate to the designed deliverables as only three of the nine student teams created final meaningful design deliverables. We report on our instructional process, our research results and provide the framework for what we believe is needed to bridge the connection of empathy, empathic design, and meaningful design deliverables.

Does slow and steady win the race?: Clustering patterns of students’ behaviors in an interactive online mathematics game

2 weeks 2 days ago
Abstract

Online educational games have been widely used to support students’ mathematics learning. However, their effects largely depend on student-related factors, the most prominent being their behavioral characteristics as they play the games. In this study, we applied a set of learning analytics methods (k-means clustering, data visualization) to clickstream data from an interactive online algebra game to unpack how middle-school students’ (N = 227) behavioral patterns (i.e., the number of problems completed, resetting problems, reattempting problems, pause time before first actions) correlated with their understanding of mathematical equivalence. The k-means cluster analysis identified four groups of students based on their behavioral patterns in the game: fast progressors, intermediate progressors, slow progressors, and slow-steady progressors. The results indicated that students in these clusters, with the exception of slow progressors, showed significant increases in their understanding of mathematical equivalence. In particular, slow-steady progressors, who reattempted the same problem more often than other students, showed the largest absolute learning gains, suggesting that behavioral engagement played a significant role in learning. With data visualizations, we presented evidence of variability in students’ approaches to problem solving in the game, providing future directions for investigating how differences in student behaviors impact learning.

Connecting learning and playing: the effects of in-game cognitive supports on the development and transfer of computational thinking skills

2 weeks 3 days ago
Abstract

Prior studies on game-based learning provide limited and mixed results in the transfer of skills learned during game play to contexts outside of the game. This study tested the effects of playing a blocked-based programming educational game implemented with in-game cognitive supports on students’ ability to learn and apply computational thinking (CT) skills in near and far transfer tasks. With 79 students randomly assigned to one of two conditions, the control group received basic game supports and the treatment group received cognitive supports in addition to the basic game supports. After two hours of total gameplay over the course of four days, both groups performed equally well, and students’ CT skills were improved significantly at the near transfer level but not at the far transfer level. Students in the control condition performed significantly better on far transfer compared to the students in the treatment condition. Regression analyses indicated that the overall use of the cognitive supports was infrequent, but the amount of time spent voluntarily using cognitive supports with help on goal setting and worked examples predicted far transfer performance. How students use the cognitive supports (subverting the use of cognitive support to conscientiously learn the computational skill by using them more as game cheat sheets) might explain these findings. Design implications and directions for future research on facilitating learning transfer with in-game supports are discussed.

Impacts of an AI-based chabot on college students’ after-class review, academic performance, self-efficacy, learning attitude, and motivation

2 weeks 3 days ago
Abstract

Review strategies after learning new knowledge are essential for students to consolidate the key points, understand the subject content, analyze aspects of the learning topics, and summarize the knowledge content of learning while mastering new knowledge. However, educators have found that students generally have difficulties seeking help when they encounter learning problems. This could significantly affect their after-class review performances. To cope with this problem, an after-class review approach with an AI (Artificial Intelligence)-based chatbot is proposed in this study to provide students with immediate and quality feedback during the learning process. Moreover, a quasi-experiment was conducted to explore students’ learning motivation, attitude, and academic performance when using the AI-based chatbot. Participants were two classes of students from a university in Taiwan. One class with 18 students was the experimental group and the other with 20 students was the control group. The experimental group used the AI-based chatbot in the after-class review, while the control group used the conventional after-class review approach. Research results showed that the application of AI-based chatbots in the review process of public health courses could improve students’ academic performance, self-efficacy, learning attitude, and motivation. In other words, chatbots could help students become more active in the learning process. It is noted that after students asked questions, providing them with sufficient feedback during the review process could make them feel recognized and help to establish a relaxing and friendly interaction, thereby improving their academic performance.

A concept mapping-based prediction-observation-explanation approach to promoting students’ flipped learning achievements and perceptions

2 weeks 3 days ago
Abstract

Previous research has illustrated the potential of flipped learning for assisting teachers in designing meaningful activities to promote students’ higher order thinking skills; however, several previous studies have challenged the effects of flipped learning on students’ learning. One of the key problems is the lack of an effective learning approach or tools to engage students in the flipped learning activity. In this study, a concept mapping-based Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE) approach was incorporated into flipped learning (called CPOE-FL) to enhance students’ scientific learning. Furthermore, a three-group experiment was conducted to assess the effects of the three flipped learning models, comprising the CPOE-FL approach, the POE-FL (incorporating POE into flipped learning) approach, and the C-FL (conventional flipped learning) approach. The experimental results displayed that the CPOE-FL approach can benefit the learning achievements and self-efficacy of the students with respectively lower prior knowledge and lower initial self-efficacy, in comparison with the POE-FL and C-FL approaches. Both the CPOE-FL and POE-FL approaches promoted the students’ inner learning motivation, while the CPOE-FL approach enhanced the students’ critical thinking. This proposed approach could provide a good reference for researchers or school teachers intending to implement POE-based flipped learning in the future.

Explicit instruction in the context of whole-tasks: the effectiveness of the task-centered instructional strategy in computer science education

3 weeks 2 days ago
Abstract

Novice programmers, who have yet to form effective mental models of the domain, often experience high cognitive load, low confidence, and high anxiety, negatively affecting learning and retention rates. These cognitive and affective limitations pose an instructional challenge. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a whole-task instructional approach compared with a part-task instructional approach for novices learning to program from a cognitive and affective perspective. A fully randomized between-subjects controlled experiment was designed, including two online instructional conditions (whole-task vs. part-task). The whole-task condition followed the Task-Centered Instructional Strategy and included explicit instruction in the context of whole tasks. The part-task condition followed a part-task instructional strategy and included the same explicit instruction, yet in the context of objectives and topic-related tasks. Based on Bandura’s triadic model (Bandura, Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory, Prentice-Hall, 1986), we propose a conceptual model, which we used to hypothesize that the Task-Centered Instructional Strategy may be more effective for novices learning to program. Sixty-five students with no programming experience volunteered to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to one of the conditions. Participants in the whole-task condition performed significantly better on the near and far transfer posttests. In accordance with our model, confidence and cognitive load during learning were found to be significant partial mediators of the effect of instructional strategy on performance. Overall, we found that the task-centered instructional strategy, combining explicit instruction with whole-tasks, is effective for addressing the cognitive and affective considerations relevant to novices in computer science education.

Exploring teachers’ emotional experience in a TPACK development task

4 weeks ago
Abstract

Teacher emotions could make a difference to the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), a complicated knowledge essential for effective teaching with technology. Both experienced and novice teachers reported having experienced a series of emotional challenges as they acquire technology integration skills. Self-regulated learning (SRL), a series of cognitive and metacognitive learning processes in problem-solving, is associated with learners’ emotions as well. In this paper, we examine the influence of teaching experience and SRL on teachers’ emotions in the context of TPACK development. Particularly, we identify two distinct groups of teachers based on the extent to which they experience positive and negative emotional experience in the task using the clustering analysis method. Binary logistic regression was applied to test whether the model of teaching experience and SRL can predict previous emotion groups. Although the overall model was significant, only SRL was a significant individual predictor in this context. Regression analysis revealed a positive association between SRL and teacher emotions. We used a qualitative method to analyze teachers’ think-aloud protocols to further determine teaching experience and SRL’s influence on teacher emotions. The results supported previous findings that SRL can positively predict teachers’ emotions during the TPACK development task. Implications were discussed for providing emotional support to teachers during TPACK development.

Design and development of an online formative peer assessment environment with instructional scaffolds

4 weeks ago
Abstract

Although formative peer assessment (FPA) has become a prevailing learning activity in different educational settings, there are not enough suggestions on how to structure it with instructional supports in online environments to optimize its benefits. Therefore, this study aims to propose design guidelines for the development of an effective online FPA environment with instructional scaffolds in the context of writing activities at high schools. To this end, an online FPA environment was designed on the basis of an assessment model for regulated learning and teachers’ and students’ experiences. It was evaluated and refined three times. The formative evaluation findings suggested designing an online FPA environment with preparatory activities, information resources, goal setting and planning, anonymity, criteria form, sustainable and supportive dialog, motivational elements, and an easy-to-use interface. As a result, 11 design guidelines were produced. Overall, this research provides a better understanding of the essential design elements of online FPA environments.

Applying the DT-CDIO engineering design model in a flipped learning programming course

4 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

A web design course has complex and diverse skills, which may attract students with an interest in technology and art fields to learn to program. It makes a need to have a flexible learning framework to develop all students to learn in a programming course. This study was designed to develop students’ learning achievement and computational thinking (CT) abilities by using a Design Thinking (DT)—Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate (CDIO) engineering design framework in a flipped web programming course. The participants were 41 students (males = 17, females = 24) coming from a Taiwan University. All of the students (20–21 years old) had e-learning-related backgrounds in a teacher’s college. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks. The flipped learning and flipped DT-CDIO course each had a total teaching time of 6 weeks, and the midterm exam and final exam each took one week. We used a questionnaire and formative assessment to examine the students’ computational thinking ability and learning achievement before and after the course was applied. The results showed the students significantly improved their learning achievement and computational thinking ability. There were no significant gender differences in learning achievement. Some gender differences could be seen in some dimensions of CT ability. This study shows that the DT-CDIO framework brings many benefits to promote interdisciplinary learning by attracting STEAM talent and providing evidence to support the importance of flipped web programming courses.

The effects of a game-enhanced learning intervention on foreign language learning

4 weeks 2 days ago
Abstract

The rich multimedia-enhanced language content offered by modern commercial off-the-shelf games and students’ interest in playing such games has motivated efforts for seeking effective means to integrate them into the curriculum to enrich and enhance foreign language learning. Despite the general interest and appeal of game-enhanced learning in foreign language learning, there is a need for strategies for effective curriculum integration and empirical studies to test the effects of such interventions systematically. This study aims to contribute to this need by investigating the effectiveness of a ten-week-long game-enhanced language learning intervention on English foreign language learning. The study employed an embedded mixed methods design, including a controlled experiment and semi-structured interviews. The experiment group (n = 38) participated in a game-enhanced language learning program that was designed based on the Play Curricular activity Reflection Discussion (PCaRD) framework, whereas the control group (n = 38) received conventional instruction. Students took the TOEFL-ITP and L2 motivational self-system questionnaire before and after the intervention, whereas qualitative data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that both groups had significantly improved their scores, yet no significant differences were found in their post-test scores. The motivation questionnaire revealed a significant difference in cultural interest and attitudes to target community dimensions in favor of the game-enhanced condition. Moreover, the interview results indicated that participants had positive attitudes towards integrating commercial games into their language classrooms. Although the experimental group did not significantly outperform the control group, the game-enhanced intervention provided an equally effective learning experience with improved motivational attributes.

Immersive virtual reality in STEM: is IVR an effective learning medium and does adding self-explanation after a lesson improve learning outcomes?

1 month ago
Abstract

The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of an immersive virtual reality (IVR) science simulation on learning in a higher educational setting, and to assess whether using self-explanation has benefits for knowledge gain. A sample of 79 undergraduate biology students (40 females, 37 males, 2 non-binary) learned about next-generation sequencing using an IVR simulation that lasted approximately 45 min. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional conditions: self-explanation (n = 41) or control (n = 38). The self-explanation group engaged in a 10 min written self-explanation task after the IVR biology lesson, while the control group rested. The results revealed that the IVR simulation led to a significant increase in knowledge from the pre- to post-test (ßPosterior = 3.29). There were no differences between the self-explanation and control groups on knowledge gain, procedural, or conceptual transfer. Finally, the results indicate that the self-explanation group reported significantly higher intrinsic cognitive load (ßPosterior = .35), and extraneous cognitive load (ßPosterior = .37), and significantly lower germane load (ßPosterior =  − .38) than the control group. The results suggest that the IVR lesson was effective for learning, but adding a written self-explanation task did not increase learning after a long IVR lesson.

Exploring collaborative caption editing to augment video-based learning

1 month ago
Abstract

Captions play a major role in making educational videos accessible to all and are known to benefit a wide range of learners. However, many educational videos either do not have captions or have inaccurate captions. Prior work has shown the benefits of using crowdsourcing to obtain accurate captions in a cost-efficient way, though there is a lack of understanding of how learners edit captions of educational videos either individually or collaboratively. In this work, we conducted a user study where 58 learners (in a course of 387 learners) participated in the editing of captions in 89 lecture videos that were generated by Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technologies. For each video, different learners conducted two rounds of editing. Based on editing logs, we created a taxonomy of errors in educational video captions (e.g., Discipline-Specific, General, Equations). From the interviews, we identified individual and collaborative error editing strategies. We then further demonstrated the feasibility of applying machine learning models to assist learners in editing. Our work provides practical implications for advancing video-based learning and for educational video caption editing.

Elementary Students Learning Computer Programming: an investigation of their knowledge Retention, Motivation, and perceptions

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Students need to learn and practice computational thinking and skills throughout PreK-12 to be better prepared for entering college and future careers. We designed a math-infused computer science course for third to fifth graders to learn programming. This study aims to investigate the impact of the course on students’ knowledge acquisition of mathematical and computational concepts, motivation, and perceptions of the computing activities. Fifty-one students at a Boys and Girls Club participated in the study. Data collection procedures include pre- and post-tests, pre- and post-surveys, in-class observations, and one-on-one interviews. Results indicate that students have improved significantly on mathematical and computational concepts. They also tended to believe computer programming is fun, comprehensible, enjoyable, and were able to perceive the value of learning it. Implications and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

Examining teachers’ behavior patterns in and perceptions of using teacher dashboards for facilitating guidance in CSCL

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Learning analytics dashboards have been developed to facilitate teacher guidance in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). As yet, little is known about how teachers interpret dashboard information to facilitate guidance in their teaching practice. This study examined teachers’ behavior patterns in interpreting information from dashboards, and obtained their views about the potential barriers in interpreting dashboard information. Fourteen pre-service teachers participated in the study and data were collected from multiple sources. In total, 1,346 min of video data on teachers’ guiding behavior and approximately 27,000 words from a cued retrospective report and interview data were generated. A two-stage approach was adopted to process the data. Based on the video analysis in the first stage, we extracted teachers’ four typical behavior patterns in finding and reading dashboard information and two behavior patterns when explaining information from dashboards. Thematic analysis at the second stage identified useful indicators for teacher guidance in CSCL and some major barriers teachers encountered in interpreting information. These findings may help improve the design of dashboards and show how teachers integrate dashboards into their daily teaching practice, thereby enhancing students’ collaboration and learning.

Did library learners benefit from m-learning strategies? Research-based evidence from a co-citation network analysis of the literature

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Mobile learning strategies have been employed for social learning activities, including library- and museum-supported learning. Previous studies have reviewed the literature from the technological aspect. However, a retrospective study from the perspective of bibliometric and network structure has not yet been provided. The aim of this study was therefore to systematically review journal papers on library-supported mobile learning (LibML). A coding framework including library types, mobile learning strategies, and research issues was adopted based on the literature and was used to screen and categorize the research papers. A co-citation network analysis was then adopted to analyze and visualize the structural relationships among the papers. A total of 53 eligible articles with 1370 citations in follow-up studies were collected from the Scopus database. The results showed that two main research streams of LibML were identified from the overall network structure, including library- and museum-supported mobile learning. In terms of the mobile learning strategy, library-supported research mainly focused on self-directed learning, whereas museum-supported research emphasized inquiry-based learning. In terms of research issues, most library-supported research focused on patrons’ affective engagement, whereas museum-supported research emphasized learning performance. This study provides a citation-based approach to reveal the research trends and mainstream LibML research. The main contribution of combining co-citation and social network analysis is to provide a visualized network diagram of LibML research. Limitations of the methodological approach are noted. Discussion and future directions from the follow-up study are provided.