Learner-generated material: the effects of ubiquitous photography on foreign language speaking performance
The widespread availability of mobile phones has facilitated mobile learning and ubiquitous learning in language education. Although numerous benefits have been documented, the evidence for speaking fluency enhancement is relatively scant. Firmly grounded in humans’ cognitive structure and learners’ prior knowledge, this study proposes a ubiquitous photography strategy as a form of generative learning strategy. Specifically, besides the photos in English textbooks, foreign language (FL) learners at the college level were encouraged to use their mobile phones to capture photos to practice visual prompted oral tasks. Their learning experience was measured by a self-report questionnaire, triggering their perceptions of mental effort, task complexity, and learning preferences. Their learning outcome was measured by speech analysis of their oral performance, targeting fluency, and vocabulary diversity. Data analysis revealed that ubiquitous photography induced a better learning experience and enhanced their speaking outcomes to various extents. Results contribute to the potential of integrating ubiquitous learning and generative learning strategies in FL classrooms.