ETR&D

Rubric formats for the formative assessment of oral presentation skills acquisition in secondary education

3 days 21 hours ago
Abstract

Acquiring complex oral presentation skills is cognitively demanding for students and demands intensive teacher guidance. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to identify and apply design guidelines in developing an effective formative assessment method for oral presentation skills during classroom practice, and (b) to develop and compare two analytic rubric formats as part of that assessment method. Participants were first-year secondary school students in the Netherlands (n = 158) that acquired oral presentation skills with the support of either a formative assessment method with analytic rubrics offered through a dedicated online tool (experimental groups), or a method using more conventional (rating scales) rubrics (control group). One experimental group was provided text-based and the other was provided video-enhanced rubrics. No prior research is known about analytic video-enhanced rubrics, but, based on research on complex skill development and multimedia learning, we expected this format to best capture the (non-verbal aspects of) oral presentation performance. Significant positive differences on oral presentation performance were found between the experimental groups and the control group. However, no significant differences were found between both experimental groups. This study shows that a well-designed formative assessment method, using analytic rubric formats, outperforms formative assessment using more conventional rubric formats. It also shows that higher costs of developing video-enhanced analytic rubrics cannot be justified by significant more performance gains. Future studies should address the generalizability of such formative assessment methods for other contexts, and for complex skills other than oral presentation, and should lead to more profound understanding of video-enhanced rubrics.

Editorial: preface to the special issue on embodied cognition and technology for learning

1 week 2 days ago
Abstract

In this preface to the special issue on embodied cognition and technology for learning, we begin with a brief overview of embodied cognition. We then provide a summary of the papers included in this special issue, noting the features of each paper that make a unique contribution to the special issue topic. Finally, we close by considering the questions and future directions for research on embodied cognition and technology that the special issue offers.

An improved hybrid ontology-based approach for online learning resource recommendations

1 week 3 days ago
Abstract

In recent years, online learning has become more and more popular. However, because of information overload, learners often find it difficult to retrieve suitable learning resources. Although many scholars have proposed excellent online learning resource recommendation algorithms, the accuracy of personalized recommendation results still needs to be improved. This study proposes an improved hybrid ontology-based approach for online learning resource recommendations, combining collaborative filtering algorithm and sequential pattern mining (SPM) techniques. Ontology can be used effectively for knowledge representation to avoid cold start and data sparsity problems. And the history of learners’ sequential access patterns helps in providing recommendations that are more consistent with the law of learning activities. Experimental results reveal that our improved hybrid approach for learning resource recommendations yields better performance and recommendation quality than other related algorithms. Compared with previous research outcomes, our collaborative filtering engine, with ontology domain knowledge, makes full use of the historical learning paths of similar learners. The ontology construction in this study has a more reliable theoretical basis and the selection of features is more representative. In addition, improvement of the SPM process further improves the efficiency of our recommended algorithm.

Digital badging systems as a set of cultural tools for personalized professional development

1 week 4 days ago
Abstract

Through design-based research, this study examines a digital badging system to support online, independent teacher Professional development (PD) in Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) subjects. Sociocultural learning theory, in conjunction with the mediation triangle, provided a lens through which digital badging systems were examined as cultural tools for planning and wayfinding. This framework supported personalized teacher professional development in the digital badging system, Teacher learning journeys (TLJ), and the study examined teacher planning through goal articulation and wayfinding through teacher selection of professional development activities. Data consisted of teacher-generated artifacts, including goal statements, orientation activity reflections, intended PD activities, and completed PD activities. Data collection occurred during two 3-month iterations of teacher interaction with TLJ (I-1 = 30, I-2 = 29), and analyses were conducted using qualitative coding and statistical investigation including independent samples t tests and Pearson r correlations. Findings for teacher planning include a positive impact of reflective writing supports for activity completion, a broadening search for content, and four common objectives in written goal statements. Findings for teacher wayfinding discuss how participants used structures of the digital badging system for organizing and completing professional development in different ways. Analyses uncover differences in organizing intended professional development, three time-based patterns of use, and a non-significant relationship between intentions to complete an activity and the completion of activities. The intended and actual use of the TLJ system along with impacts on the teacher-leaners provide valuable insight into design considerations for developers and designers of independent teacher professional development.

An exploration of the relationship between argumentative prompts and depth to elicit alternative positions in ill-structured problem solving

2 weeks 3 days ago
Abstract

Little is known about the role of prompts to help learners solve ill-structured learning problems. Instructors do not devote adequate time to formulate pedagogically useful prompts, and the usefulness of different types of prompt is unclear. This mixed-methods study examined the role of argumentative prompts in the writing of essays based on business case studies. A significant (p < .001) relationship with a large effect size was found between the type of argumentative prompt (rhetorical and dialectical) and argumentative depth. Alternative argumentative positions were found to significantly (p < .001) mediate the relationship between argumentative prompt type argumentative depth with a large effect size. Verification and elaboration strategies were utilized in a similar way across both rhetorical and dialectical prompts. Dialectical prompts did not appear to be more effective than rhetorical prompts when using evidence strategies. Rebuttal appeared to be utilized more in response to dialectical prompts. The implications are that instructors should ensure that both rhetorical and dialectal prompts are provided in assignments involving ill-structured learning problems.

From cooperation to collaboration: investigating collaborative group writing and social knowledge construction in pre-service teachers

3 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

The rapid development of social media tools has drawn much research interest in teacher education. This development has suggested that a wiki with discussion (i.e., an enhanced wiki) seems valuable in facilitating online collaborative and interactive learning. This study examined dynamic patterns of revision behavior in group writing by distinguishing two forms of interaction, cooperation, and collaboration. We tried to explore the links between revision behaviors in group writing and the social construction of knowledge in online discussions. Data from 30 pre-service teachers in a wiki project that lasted for three months were analyzed by using content analysis with visual techniques. Results suggested that the dynamics of revision behavior have evidently moved from cooperation toward collaboration during group writing activities. Compared with the low-collaboration group, discussions of the high-collaboration group demonstrated a gradual pattern of knowledge construction and revealed more metacognitive and social interaction features. This study contributed to existing group learning research and also shed light on collaborative writing pedagogy.

Understanding the mediating effect of learning approach between learning factors and higher order thinking skills in collaborative inquiry-based learning

3 weeks 1 day ago
Abstract

Collaborative inquiry-based learning (CIBL) is a notable instructional method used to nurture students’ higher order thinking skills. Few studies, however, have examined the mediating effect of learning approach (i.e., deep approach and surface approach) as an essential component in collaborative inquiry-based learning and the association between learning factors and higher order thinking skills. The present study conducted a semester-long survey of 80 college students who had studied using the collaborative inquiry-based learning approach. The mediating effects of learning approach on the association between four learning factors (i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, collaboration, and communication) and higher order thinking skills were examined using Partial least square (PLS) analyses. The results showed that deep approach served as a significant mediating variable in the relationship between the four learning factors and higher order thinking skills, while the surface approach did not. This study also found that collaboration was the only learning factor that had both indirect (via deep approach) and direct effects on higher order thinking skills. The fact that the relationship was examined in the collaborative inquiry-based learning context may explain the reasons for this. The findings of the study have practical implications for educators, indicating that guiding students to use the deep approach as often as possible may prove beneficial. Instructors can help students who use surface approach to gradually adjust to deep approach with careful instructional scaffoldings. Educators should also provide students with more opportunities to collaborate during inquiry-based learning activities.

Examining K-12 teachers’ feelings, experiences, and perspectives regarding online teaching during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic

3 weeks 4 days ago
Abstract

This mixed-methods study explored K-12 teachers’ feelings, experiences, and perspectives regarding online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also examined teachers’ perspectives of the “new normal” after COVID-19 and of what should be done to better prepare teachers for future emergencies. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from an online survey and follow-up interviews. A total of 107 teachers from 25 different states in the United States completed the online survey, and 13 teachers from 10 different states participated in the follow-up interviews. The results revealed teachers’ feelings about online teaching and various strategies and tools they used during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. The major challenges faced by teachers during the pandemic included lack of student participation and engagement (or lack of parental support), students without access to technology, concerns about students’ well-being, no face-to-face interactions with students, no work-life balance, and learning new technology. Four major themes emerged regarding how to better prepare teachers for future emergencies: (1) professional development for online learning, (2) technology access, (3) technology training for both teachers and students, and (4) action plans and communication. Regarding teachers’ perspectives of the “new normal,” five major themes emerged: (1) more online or blended learning, (2) rethinking normal, (3) hygiene and social distancing, (4) smaller classes and different school schedules, and (5) uncertainty and concerns about the “new normal.”

Understanding the relationship between computational thinking and computational participation: a case study from Scratch online community

3 weeks 4 days ago
Abstract

Social learning theory posits that learning is most effective when providing learners with opportunities to observe and interact with peers. Unfortunately, current K-12 programming education overemphasizes individual learning and discourages learners from observing and interacting with others. The Scratch online community provides youth opportunities to actively participate in the community by allowing them to observe and interact with others. However, it is unclear what motivates learners’ active participation in the Scratch online community. With a large-scale database with more than two hundred thousand Scratch projects, this study explored the impact of the computational thinking reflected in Scratch projects on users’ participation. We examined Scratch’s online users’ computational thinking profile via clustering analysis on the projects they created, then studied the influence of computational thinking level reflected in projects on the users’ participation through causal analysis. The clustering analysis revealed three clusters of learners, and the advanced learners did not create more projects than others but their projects attract more participation from peers. Our statistic analysis finds a low to moderate strength of correlation between the computational thinking level reflected in projects and their popularity. However, the further causal analysis suggests that the computational thinking level reflected in projects fails to causally affect learners’ participation. Our results suggest that instructors should not only attach importance to the development of basic CT skills of youth but also do well to find ways to get youth to participate actively in social interaction activity during the programming process.

The effect of narrative-based E-learning systems on novice users’ cognitive load while learning software applications

4 weeks ago
Abstract

When novice users try to learn to use a software application that includes a variety of high element interactivity tools, the complex structure of the software can increase cognitive load and render the tools incomprehensible. Accordingly, there is a need for an efficient teaching approach that can provide practical knowledge to users while decreasing their cognitive load. In this study, the use and choice of narrative were selected as procedures that can provide practical knowledge to software learners in addition to impacting cognitive load through providing a familiar theme to worked-examples. We compared the effects of familiar and unfamiliar narratives versus a no-narrative condition on cognitive load of users while learning software applications with both low and high interactivity tools through e-learning platforms. The results showed that an e-learning system with a familiar narrative could decrease cognitive load in comparison to the no-narrative and unfamiliar narrative systems for both low and high interactivity materials. It was concluded that people can learn new software applications more easily when familiar context worked-examples are used to integrate novel material with their existing knowledge.

Academic, social, and cultural learning in the French #bac2018 Twitter hashtag

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

Despite the continued use of social media in educational contexts, there remains skepticism about whether platforms like Twitter can actually contribute to learning. In this paper, we argue that such skepticism is based on an overly narrow conception of learning that focuses on academic performance and disregards other manifestations. To advance this argument, we document use of the #bac2018 Twitter hashtag in the month leading up to the 2018 baccalauréat exams (the “bac”), which are significant not only for their role in the French educational system but also for their connections with broader French society and culture. We found that participants engaged in sharing notes; slacking, doubting, and fearing; requesting retweets; preferring topics; complaining; connecting with bac heritage and experience; joking; and showing awareness of time. In keeping with the significance of the bac, we found that these practices within the #bac2018 hashtag were associated with not only academic learning but also social and cultural practices that are significant despite their absence from any formal curriculum. These findings underline the complexity and richness that characterizes learning—especially in digital contexts.

East Africa and China faculty use of information and communication technology tools: a descriptive and comparative analysis

1 month 1 week ago
Abstract

This study aims to determine the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools utilized by university faculties in East Africa and China, and to explore the connections allying instructors' perceptions over technology use and technology applications. A cross-sectional survey design questionnaire gathering information on the use of and attitudes towards technology applications was sent to five East African universities, and six Chinese universities. Respectively, data from 305 and 268 faculty members were collected, and analyzed using Technology Acceptance Modeling (TAM) combined with empirical and computational statistics. The results analysis found that only 19% of East African faculties taught part or all of an online course as compared to 69% of Chinese faculties. East Africa faculties use western social media much more than China faculties. However, China faculties use local social media more often. Findings from the relationships' path analysis reveal that for East Africa, System is the only variable that establishes a significant relationship with Actual technology Use. Ease of Use is closely related to Perceived Value, while Perceived Value is significantly related to Attitude towards technology. For China, System is the only variable that establishes a significant relationship with the Actual technology Use. Moreover, we find a wider relationship allying System Use and Actual technology tools Use for Chinese faculties indicating that they have more ICT access opportunities, thus their experience of using technology tools is more than that of East African faculties.

Investigating the usability and learner experience of a virtual reality adaptive skills intervention for adults with autism spectrum disorder

1 month 2 weeks ago
Abstract

Research on the use of virtual reality (VR) for individuals with autism lacks design precedent and theoretical guidance. Further, research in this area often fails to include participants in the design of interventions. This paper seeks to address these gaps. A proof-of-concept adaptive skills intervention for adults on the autism spectrum was developed to promote safe and appropriate utilization of public transportation. Grounded in theories of complexity and generalization, technological and pedagogical scaffolds were designed in a staged manner and gradually faded to promote acquisition and generalization of target skills. A constellation of technologies was employed, including 360-degree video and headset-based VR. A multi-phase usage study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and appeal of the prototype intervention so as to reveal design flaws and uncover opportunities to improve the overall learner experience. Findings are presented from the perspectives of expert testers (n = 4) and participant testers with autism (n = 5). Results suggest a largely positive learner experience and that the intervention is feasible and relevant to the unique needs of the target population. Implications are presented from the perspective of Roger's adoption characteristics.

Extending the social influence factor: behavioural intention to increase the usage of information and communication technology-enhanced student-centered teaching methods

1 month 2 weeks ago
Abstract

This study extends the social influence factor in the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model by delineating it into coercive, normative, and mimetic pressures based on institutional theory. It investigates the role of each institutional pressure in influencing the behavioural intention of accounting lecturers in Malaysia’s public universities to use Information and Communications Technology (ICT)-enhanced student-centred teaching methods. Using a purposive sampling method, self-report questionnaires were distributed to accounting lecturers in Malaysia’s public universities offering undergraduate accounting programmes. This resulted in 114 usable questionnaires. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling via Smart-PLS software. Only coercive and normative pressures were found to have a significant and positive influence on behavioural intention. Mimetic pressures had an insignificant influence on behavioural intention. The findings of this study are useful to authorities in the higher education sector and practitioners who have been encouraging the student-centred teaching movement. This study provides further enlightenment on which social factors yield the most effects at the present moment and which social factors need greater work to yield better effects on increasing lecturers’ behavioural intentions as a whole.

Collaborative research and use of Q methodology to understand technology infusion in teacher preparation

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

With a focus on methodology and research process, this paper explores researcher collaboration in the development, implementation, analysis, and dissemination of a multi-institutional study of teacher educators’ perspectives on technology infusion. At the conclusion of the 2018 National Technology Leadership Summit (NTLS), attendees recommended use of Q methodology to provide a holistic approach to understanding perspectives of teacher educators who were not technology specialists. As lead researchers, the co-authors worked together to design the study, develop materials, and analyze data. Research collaborators were recruited to collect data, implementing the Q sort process with participants from multiple institutions across the United States. Results revealed (1) variance in participant beliefs about the value of and expertise in integrating technology in teacher preparation and (2) consensus amongst participants about multiple challenges for achieving technology infusion across teacher preparation programs. Q methodology served as an effective approach for collecting both quantitative and qualitative data for subsequent analysis. We explored features of several software programs tailored for Q methodology and gained new insights about the benefits of and challenges to engaging in a collaborative research process.

Impact of showing a male instructor’s face on female students’ perceived social presence, satisfaction, and comprehension in distance education in a conservative, gender-segregated culture

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

To overcome a shortage of female faculty members for teaching female students in a gender-segregated educational system, Saudi Arabian universities have assigned male faculty members to teach female students through videoconferencing. However, female students often do not prefer videoconferencing, and it does not reach an optimal level of satisfaction. Although students’ ability to see an instructor’s face might diminish this negativity, Saudi cultural norms do not encourage men to show women their faces. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the impact on female students’ perceived social presence, satisfaction, and comprehension of showing male faculty members’ faces during videoconferencing. The study used the quantitative method of a between-group quasi-experimental posttest-only design. Lasting 6 weeks and including 27 female graduate students, the study administered six tests to examine participants’ comprehension and an online questionnaire to measure their perceived social presence and satisfaction. No differences between control and experimental groups were found for perceived social presence, satisfaction, or comprehension. Thus, researchers and practitioners should pay attention to opposite-gender instructor, segregated campuses, synchronized courses, gathering of students in same physical context, and conservative culture to provide effective distance education for gender-segregated institutions, as well as students with gender-segregated backgrounds when engaging in non-segregated distance education in the globalized world.

Promoting pupils’ computational thinking skills and self-efficacy: a problem-solving instructional approach

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

Computational thinking (CT) is a fundamental skill and an analytical ability that children in the twenty-first century should develop. Students should begin to work with algorithmic problem-solving and computational methods in K-12. Drawing on a conceptual framework (IGGIA) that combines CT and problem-solving, this study designed and implemented an interdisciplinary Scratch course in a primary school, examined the impact of the new problem-solving instructional approach (the adapted IGGIA) on pupils’ CT skills and self-efficacy, and explored the gender differences in these two aspects. A pretest–posttest nonequivalent group design was conducted among 63 fifth-grade students in two computer science classes over 14 weeks. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through the administration of CT scales, Scratch artifacts analysis and focus group interviews. The results revealed that the adapted IGGIA (1) significantly improved the CT skills of primary school students; (2) had a significant positive impact on pupils’ CT self-efficacy, especially on their critical thinking, algorithmic thinking and problem-solving; and (3) significantly enhanced girls’ CT skills and self-efficacy. These findings indicated that problem-solving instructional approaches could promote both cognitive and noncognitive aspects of students’ deeper computational learning.

Open educational resources (OERs) and courseware development in dual-mode universities in Nigeria

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

With increased emphasis on accessibility and quality education in tertiary institutions, open and distance learning (ODL) is occupying the center stage in Nigeria. Open educational resources (OERs) is becoming a valuable alternative to improving access to high-quality educational content released under open licenses by outstanding universities worldwide. Some conventional universities in Nigeria now offer both face-to-face and ODL courses, making them dual-mode. However, the universities who employ this dual-mode system are faced with the challenges of developing viable ODL courses. This study examined the extent the courseware developers in these universities in Nigeria use and publish their courses as OER and barriers to the effective utilization and publishing of OER especially in their institutional repositories (IR). The research instrument was designed as a descriptive survey. The sample for the study consists of 73 courseware developers selected from four dual-mode universities in Nigeria. The findings of the study showed that course developers in dual-mode universities do not use OER to a high extent nor publish OER to a high extent in their IR. It was observed that they experience more barriers with publishing of OER than with use of OER. Among others, it is recommended that there should be more awareness around this framework and course developers should be encouraged through incentives for greater participation in the use and publishing of OER in IRs.

The effects of gesture frequency and reduced video speed on virtual human persona and learning outcomes

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

Educators use various strategies to increase listening comprehension for nonnative English speakers in the classroom and multimedia environments. Research on audio reduction has shown mixed results, whereas a study that enhanced (doubled) virtual human gesturing found increased listening comprehension with procedural information (Davis and Vincent, British Journal of Educational Technology 50:3252–3263, 2019). This research examined the use of virtual human gesture frequency (enhanced, average, no) and video speed (normal, reduced 25%) on participant satisfaction, perception of agent persona, and learning outcomes with procedural information. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data from 234 multinational university students. The results indicated that normal video speed significantly increased satisfaction compared to reduced speed; agent persona was rated significantly higher with agents that gestured compared with the no-gesture condition; and enhancing the gesture frequency significantly increased learning outcomes compared to the average and no-gesture conditions. These findings support previous studies that indicated enhanced gestures significantly increase the learning of procedural information. Also, agent gesturing increased the perception of the agent as having more persona, which supports systematic review findings that gesturing is a principal moderator for agent persona (Davis et al., Journal of Research on Technology in Education 53:89–106, 2021). However, this research provides evidence that a 25% reduction in video speed might be too slow to maintain satisfaction with advanced foreign language users and that less reduced rates such as 15% or 10% need to be considered. Finally, this research puts forth a gesture design framework for designers to create gesturing virtual humans in multimedia environments.