Instructional Science

Multimethod assessment of self-regulated learning in college students: different methods for different components?

1 week 5 days ago
Abstract

Although self-regulated learning (SRL) is seen as highly relevant for successful college learning, college students oftentimes show a lack in SRL abilities. Therefore, it seems necessary to foster SRL in this group of leaners. In order to evaluate such training and to foster SRL in an optimal way, a valid assessment of this competence and its development is necessary. As different methods for the assessment of SRL show benefits and points of criticism, the present study used a multimethod approach to investigate convergence between and across different measures as well as their predictive validity for achievement. SRL was conceptualized of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational components. Seventy college students were assessed with two broad SRL-measures (questionnaire, strategy knowledge test) and two task-specific SRL measures (microanalyses, trace data) within a standardized laboratory setting. Moreover, GPA of college entrance diploma was gathered as an indicator of general achievement level. Results indicate moderate to high relations between the different components of SRL (cognition, metacognition, and motivation) within one assessment level and no relations between the different assessment methods within one component. With regard to achievement, we found that every component is predictive for achievement but only if measured with different assessment methods. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for future research and the use of different assessment methods for SRL.

Observational narrative knowledging in early professional development of student teachers of English

2 weeks 5 days ago
Abstract

This paper presents a narrative inquiry approach to understanding the early professional development (PD) of student teachers of English at a state university in Turkey. With the twofold functioning of narrative as a tool for both research and PD, we probe into how student teachers’ early PD trajectories are shaped through observational narrative knowledging. Data consisted of group discussions, semi-structured interviews, metaphor elicitations, and informal conversations that accompanied the main data collection tool, i.e., narrative frames collected during the practicum. The triangulated data were subjected to a multi-tiered collaborative content analysis. The findings showed that narrative-embedded observations helped student teachers organize and attach meaning to their early field experiences, and thus build on their self-awareness, critical thinking, and reflectivity for future classroom practices. We also reported how the participants reflected retrospectively, in the course of, and the posteriori of writing the classroom observational narratives. Through narrative knowledging, we offer a more nuanced approach to aiding student teachers’ early PD.

Preparatory effects of problem solving versus studying examples prior to instruction

2 weeks 5 days ago
Abstract

The Productive Failure (PF) approach prompts students to attempt to solve a problem prior to instruction – at which point they typically fail. Yet, research on PF shows that students who are involved in problem solving prior to instruction gain more conceptual knowledge from the subsequent instruction compared to students who receive the instruction first. So far, there is no conclusive evidence, however, that the beneficial effects of PF are explained by the attempt to generate one’s own solutions prior to instruction. The literature on example-based learning suggests that observing someone else engaging in problem-solving attempts may be an equally effective means to prepare students for instruction. In an experimental study, we compared a PF condition, in which students were actively engaged in problem solving prior to instruction, to two example conditions, in which students either observed the complete problem-solving-and-failing process of another student engaging in PF or looked at the outcome of this process (i.e., another student’s failed solution attempts). Rather than worked examples of the correct solution procedure, the students observed examples of failed solution attempts. We found that students’ own problem solving was not superior to the two example conditions. In fact, students who observed the complete PF process even outperformed students who engaged in PF themselves. Additional analyses revealed that the students’ prior knowledge moderated this effect: While students who observed the complete PF process were able to take advantage of their prior knowledge to gain more conceptual knowledge from the subsequent instruction, prior knowledge did not affect students’ post-test performance in the PF condition.

Mind maps as primers when reading-for-learning in elementary grades? An eye tracking study

2 weeks 6 days ago
Abstract

Mind maps are often used to help readers process texts, but their effectiveness is empirically under-investigated. This study explores whether the use of mind maps presented either before or after the text can prime successful selective processing strategies related to the text topic structure. Differences in performance outcomes (i.e., memory and comprehension) are also investigated. Sixty-four late elementary education students were randomly assigned to a text-only-condition (T), mind map-text-condition (MMT) or text-mind map-condition (TMM). All groups studied an informative text while their eye movements were registered. Multilayered posttests and interviews were administered. Linear mixed effect models and one-way analysis of variances show that presenting a mind map beforehand primes more successful selective processing strategies than when the mind map is presented afterwards or not presented. In contrast, the TMM-condition outperformed the others in their amount of free recall and coherence. This study suggests that both receiving a mind map before or after text processing can be beneficial during targeted instruction in view of successful reading-for-learning.

Preparing preservice teachers to use block-based coding in scientific modeling lessons

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

Scientific modeling and coding are critical skills to be integrated into K-12 instruction. Research has shown that preservice teachers are often ill-prepared for teaching scientific modeling, and lack opportunities to learn coding within teacher education programs. The present study reports the implementation of an instructional module and online system, called Coding in Scientific Modeling Lessons (CS-ModeL), which was designed to scaffold preservice science teachers’ learning to code simulations and design scientific modeling lessons that feature simulation coding. In this study, we examined preservice teachers’ epistemic discourse during simulation coding, perceptions of coding for future teaching, and coding-enhanced scientific modeling lessons. This was a qualitative single case study that involved six participants enrolled in a science teacher education course. Participants worked in pairs during scientific modeling activities, and each pair was considered an embedded unit within the single case. Data sources included transcripts of screen recordings captured during simulation coding, transcripts of individual semi-structured interviews, and lessons in which participants used simulation coding as part of scientific modeling activities. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Findings revealed that participants’ epistemic discourse led to correction of science misconceptions. However, lack of debugging and conflict argumentation skills detracted from their epistemic discourse quality. Participants perceived coding as a beneficial skill for K-12 students though they voiced concerns about teaching with coding unassisted. Participants failed to design truly interdisciplinary and authentic scientific modeling activities including simulation coding. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.

When failure fails to be productive: probing the effectiveness of productive failure for learning beyond STEM domains

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

The current work builds on research demonstrating the effectiveness of Productive Failure (PF) for learning. While the effectiveness of PF has been demonstrated for STEM learning, it has not yet been investigated whether PF is also beneficial for learning in non-STEM domains. Given this need to test PF for learning in domains other than mathematics or science, and the assumption that features embodied in a PF design are domain-independent, we investigated the effect of PF on learning social science research methods. We conducted two quasi-experimental studies with 212 and 152 10th graders. Following the paradigm of typical PF studies, we implemented two conditions: PF, in which students try to solve a complex problem prior to instruction, and Direct Instruction (DI), in which students first receive instruction followed by problem solving. In PF, students usually learn from their failure. Failing to solve a complex problem is assumed to prepare students for deeper learning from subsequent instruction. In DI, students usually learn through practice. Practicing and applying a given problem-solving procedure is assumed to help students to learn from previous instruction. In contrast to several studies demonstrating beneficial effects of PF on learning mathematics and science, in the present two studies, PF students did not outperform DI students on learning social science research methods. Thus, the findings did not replicate the PF effect on learning in a non-STEM domain. The results are discussed in light of mechanisms assumed to underlie the benefits of PF.

It matters how to recall – task differences in retrieval practice

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

The type of a recall task may substantially influence the effects of learning by retrieval practice. In a within-subject design, 54 university students studied two expository texts, followed by retrieval practice with either short-answer tasks (targeted retrieval) or a free-recall task (holistic retrieval). Concerning the direct effects of retrieval practice, short-answer tasks led to increased retention of directly retrieved targeted information from the learning contents, whereas free-recall tasks led to better retention of further information from the learning contents. Concerning indirect effects, short-answer tasks improved metacognitive calibration; free-recall tasks increased self-efficacy and situational interest. These findings confirm the assumption that the effects of retrieval practice depend on the type of recall task: short-answer tasks help us remember targeted information units and foster metacognitive calibration. Free-recall tasks help us remember a broader spectrum of information, and they foster motivational factors.

Holistic and dynamic: teacher-researcher reflections on operating mobile-assisted learning tasks supported by WeChat for Chinese as a foreign language

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

Teacher perspectives have been lacking in the mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) literature. To fill this gap, this study investigates how Chinese teachers implemented WeChat-supported language tasks and the challenges they encountered in the process. Based on technology-mediated task-based language teaching and authentic assessment frameworks, we designed tasks that aimed to achieve both pedagogical goals (focusing on linguistic forms and achieving authenticity) and technological goals. Teachers’ reflective journals revealed that implementing WeChat-supported tasks was a holistic and dynamic process, entailing four interrelated phases and requiring continuous management of unexpected events. This indicates that teachers should develop new skills and play complex, well-rounded roles to meet both the pedagogical and technological goals of technology-mediated tasks in MALL in the digital era.

Example-based learning: should learners receive closed-book or open-book self-explanation prompts?

1 month 3 weeks ago
Abstract

In learning from examples, students are often first provided with basic instructional explanations of new principles and concepts and second with examples thereof. In this sequence, it is important that learners self-explain by generating links between the basic instructional explanations’ content and the examples. Therefore, it is well established that learners receive self-explanation prompts. However, there is hardly any research on whether these prompts should be provided in a closed-book format—in which learners cannot access the basic instructional explanations during self-explaining and thus have to retrieve the main content of the instructional explanations that is needed to explain the examples from memory (i.e., retrieval practice)—or in an open-book format in which learners can access the instructional explanations during self-explaining. In two experiments, we varied whether learners received closed- or open-book self-explanation prompts. We also varied whether learners were prompted to actively process the main content of the basic instructional explanations before they proceeded to the self-explanation prompts. When the learners were not prompted to actively process the basic instructional explanations, closed-book prompts yielded detrimental effects on immediate and delayed (1 week) posttest performance. When the learners were prompted to actively process the basic instructional explanations beforehand, closed-book self-explanation prompts were not less beneficial than open-book prompts regarding performance on a delayed posttest. We conclude that at least when the retention interval does not exceed 1 week, closed-book self-explanation prompts do not entail an added value and can even be harmful in comparison to open-book ones.