Exploring the use of technology among newly arrived children in Hong Kong: from an e-sports and cultural capital perspective
Based on Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory, our study examined the engagement of newly arrived children (NAC) with ICT and e-sports both at home and in school in the context of Hong Kong. Our in-depth case study of a Hong Kong secondary school revealed that the selected NAC typically came from disadvantaged school and immigrant family backgrounds. They had limited access to technology and little parental mediation at home. The results also showed that as these NAC excessively used ICT at home for multiplayer online games, they became active e-sports players with good ICT skills. These students created an e-sports culture in the school, which was supported by their teachers and the principal. Contrary to their parents’ conservative and negative attitude towards a career in e-sports or the ICT industry, the principal and teachers viewed e-sports as an alternative way for their students to accumulate capital and provide them with opportunities for upward social mobility. The findings demonstrate the importance of education in bridging the digital divide of NAC and helping them accumulate the digital dimension of cultural capital.
Rapid urbanization in China has worsened the educational disparity between rural and urban regions, which can lead to increased social stratification and injustice. Information and communications technologies (ICTs), with their potential to enable universal access and pedagogical reform, are considered a promising solution to bridge such disparity. To gain a deeper understanding of how ICTs can promote equity and quality in China’s education system, this study employed the extended case method to critically evaluate the longitudinal changes in four rural schools since the implementation of ICT initiatives in 2014. Our study revealed that ICTs acted as an external force that disrupted the status quo of rural education in terms of pedagogical and curricular norms, classroom structure and dynamics, perceived school and teacher identities, and induced positive changes such as increased academic performance, social and emotional development for left-behind children, and professional development for rural teachers. The study also offered theoretical insight into the socioeconomic factors hindering the sustainable development of ICT-supported rural education. Our research findings can contribute to the theory development in educational equity, educational quality, and social justice, and inform policy formulation to revamp rural education in China.
Narrative as a game design feature constantly yields mixed results for learning in the literature. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods case study was to examine design heuristics and implications governing the role of narratives in a digital game-based learning (DGBL) environment for math problem solving. We collected data via observation, semi-structured interviewing, and video recording with twenty-seven college students with diverse demographic backgrounds. Video logging resulted in 2276 behavioral events for quantitative analysis. The study indicated: (1) 11 narrative-governed actions for game-based math problem solving; (2) the positive correlations between narrative usage and successful game-based math problem solving; and (3) the gender effects: girls are supported by game narratives designed with intrinsic integration (i.e., object-oriented narrative) for math problem solving more than boys. The study findings highlighted the critical role of game narratives in a sandbox DGBL environment for math problem solving as well as gender-inclusive design of narratives. A set of data-driven design heuristics and implications for the game narrative in DGBL were delineated and suggested.
The commitment to increase the inclusion of students with disabilities has ensured that the concept of Assistive Technology (AT) has become increasingly widespread in education. The main objective of this paper focuses on conducting a systematic review of studies regarding the impact of Assistive Technology for the inclusion of students with disabilities. In order to achieve the above, a review of relevant empirical studies published between 2009 and 2020 in four databases (Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, ERIC and PsycINFO) was carried out. The sample consists of 31 articles that met the inclusion criteria of this review, out of a total of 216 identified. Findings of this study include that the use of Assistive Technologies is successful in increasing the inclusion and accessibility of students with disabilities, although barriers such as teacher education, lack of information or accessibility are found.
When participants engage twice in the same creative problem-solving task with educational robots, they have the possibility to repeat the same solution, allowing them to complete the task faster, or to show a creative intention and behavior, engaging them in developing a new solution. In this study, we aim to analyze the creative process considering the creative intention and the persistence in the creative process. For this purpose, we engaged 115 adults to perform twice the same problem-solving task using modular robotic cubes without specific instruction concerning the way to solve the task the second time. Creative intention is observed when the participant tests a new solution in the beginning of the second realization of the task, creative persistence behavior is show when participant stay engaged in a new plan although it requires time and efforts. Results show that participants’ effective creative solution is related to their creative intention and the time engaged in the second occurrence of the educational robotic task (assessing the creative behavior persistence). These results suggest that the creative process leading to an effective creative solution in a repeated task requires an initial creative intention, but also a higher creative behavior persistence than engaging in a conservative behavior.
Preservice science teachers coding science simulations: epistemological understanding, coding skills, and lesson design
National and state science learning standards urge K-12 educators to offer authentic Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics learning experiences. One way to fulfill this goal is to prepare preservice science teachers to integrate computer science skills, such as coding, into science education learning contexts that can benefit from it. This study implemented Coding in Scientific Modeling Lessons (CS-ModeL) in a science teacher education course. CS-ModeL is the name of an instructional module and of an online tool, and they aim to support preservice science teachers’ use of coding in scientific modeling and lesson design. Preservice teachers used block-based coding to create science simulations, performed analogous physical experiments, and designed lessons in which they support scientific modeling with coding. This mixed methods study investigated if and how participation in CS-ModeL affected preservice teachers’ epistemological understanding of scientific models and modeling along with their understanding of computer science concepts. This study also examined coding-enhanced scientific modeling activities in their designed lessons. Results showed an overall improvement in participants’ epistemological understanding of models and modeling, and in their understanding of computer science concepts. Participants’ lessons featured activities in which block-based coding simulations are used either as a research tool or as an exploration tool. Additionally, most lessons targeted computer science practices, but not concepts. It was also found that participants’ lessons were not aligned with their epistemological understanding of models and modeling. Study limitations, implications for research and practice, and directions for future research are discussed.
A critical gap exists between research-driven early reading disability (RD) prevention efforts and practice. To help bridge this gap, we describe the development of a technology-based tool to help preschool teachers implement responsive “assessment-guided” practices (screening, intentional teaching, and reflective monitoring, evaluation, and individualizing of learning progress) to reduce children’s risk for RD prior to school entry. The tool comprised tablet and website embedded supports for initiating and sustaining these practices, such as: online assessment and reports, teacher training, downloadable classroom materials, implementation guidance, and progress monitoring capabilities. We also report preliminary findings from four tool-implementing classrooms (n = 33) and four non-implementing classrooms (n = 37) for evaluating the impact of this technological RD prevention approach. Over 6 months, prekindergarten teachers thrice administered a tablet screener, implemented 1-h strategic classroom activities (Circle, Story, Play, and Center) 9 days per month, and engaged in systematic, ongoing monitoring of learning and individualization of supports for children with identified RD risk. Statistically significant between-group mean differences in spring pre-reading performance was found between tool implementing and comparison “business-as-usual” non-implementing classrooms. By spring, only 13.5% of children in tool-implementing classrooms remained at-risk for RD (down from 45.9% in the fall) compared to 48.6% of children in non-implementing classrooms (down from 56.8% in the fall). In addition, teachers positively rated their implementation experience. Our findings suggest that with embedded technological support, prekindergarten teachers can feasibly and effectively engage in evidence-informed practices to systematically reduce children’s risk for RD.
Exploring students’ behavioral patterns when playing educational games with learning supports at different timings
The current study investigated students’ gameplay behavioral patterns as a function of in-game learning supports delivery timing when played a computer-based physics game. Our sample included 134 secondary students (M = 14.40, SD = .90) from all over the United States, who were randomly assigned into three conditions: receiving instructional videos before a game level (n = 40), receiving instructional videos after a game level (n = 41), and without instructional videos (n = 53) while playing the game for about 150 min. We collected students’ gameplay behavior data using game log files and employed sequential analysis to compare their problem-solving and help-seeking behaviors upon receiving instructional videos at different timings. Results suggested that the instructional videos, delivered either before or after a game level, helped students identify the correct game solution at the beginning of medium-difficulty game levels. Moreover, receiving the instructional videos delayed students’ help-seeking behaviors—encouraging them to figure out game problems on their own before asking for help. However, receiving the instructional videos may possibly restrict students from creating diverse gaming solutions. Suggestions on design and implementation of in-game learning supports based on the findings are also presented.
This experimental investigation seeks to corroborate a knowledge structure sorting task approach as a measure to more fully account for prior knowledge when reading. A latent semantic analysis (LSA) network derived from thousands of texts typically read by first year college students was used to create a prototypical referent network model of the global collective knowledge structure of the key terms in the text. Bilingual Chinese-English participants (n = 205) were randomly assigned to four treatments to sort terms in both languages, then to read an English expository text of an unfamiliar topic, then sort in both languages again, and lastly complete a comprehension posttest. All pre- and post- sorting tasks data were converted to Pathfinder networks as measures of knowledge structure. Multiword clusters in the LSA network were present in the initial pre-reading group-average sorting networks of both languages, but especially in Chinese (their L1), and these clusters tended to persist after reading. Reading had only a small influence on the post-reading group-average networks. Sorting in Chinese had a stronger influence downstream than did sorting in English (L1 > L2 influence). For researchers, these innovative approaches to establish local and global collective knowledge networks show promise as complementary measures to explain learning in terms of knowledge structure alignment and transitions, and pragmatically, sorting tasks are relatively easy to implement and interpret in real classrooms as formative diagnostic measures of conceptual understanding.
Evaluation of the level of problem solving skills of Turkish higher education graduates in technology-rich environments
This study aims to evaluate the level of Turkish higher education graduates’ problem-solving skills (PSSs) in technology-rich environments (TREs) at work and daily life as information and communication technologies are increasingly used in economic and social structure. It also investigates the effects of socio-demographic factors including gender, age, the field of study, and higher education attainment level on their PSSs in TREs. In this context, the data concerning Turkish higher education graduates’ PSSs released by the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) in 2016 was used. With regard to methodology, we employed descriptive and logistic regression analyses to investigate the data. The descriptive statistics results indicated that the participants use computer at a basic level in TREs and work in small and medium enterprises where technology is not highly demanded at moderate and advanced levels. The logistic regression analysis results revealed that gender and higher education level have significant impacts on their level of PSSs in TREs as opposed to age and the field of study variables. The significant differences are in favor of the female participants and associate and bachelor degree levels. These findings accounted for nearly 4% of their level of problem solving skills. Based on the study findings and the changing expectations of labor market, the policy proposals were discussed to increase the level of Turkish higher education students’ PSSs in TREs. The study can contribute to the literature, thereby assisting the development of new practices or policies in Turkey to advance higher education graduates' PSSs in order to meet the needs of TREs at both work and in daily life.
Reading-comprehension performances of expository and narrative texts on Interactive-Whiteboards and Paper: evidence from 5th grade children
In this study, we compared the effects of two media (Interactive Whiteboards and Paper) on both expository and narrative texts reading comprehension among 5th grade children of primary school. Two texts were constructed, according to the same controlled hierarchical structure. Comprehension was assessed by a multiple-choice questionnaire including three types of questions (surface, semantics, inferential). Results of the comprehension test revealed no difference between the two supports. Regardless of support, we found better performances for the narrative text, as well as an interaction between Text and Question factors, revealing that children had more difficulties to elaborate inferences when reading the expository text. These results are in line with previous findings underlying that texts with a similar structure, with a single-page presentation elicit similar performances on paper and electronic devices. They also provide interesting perspectives about the use and impact of Interactive Whiteboards during reading activities or lessons in classrooms.
A central goal of upper elementary schools is improving students’ skills to write persuasively using source materials. This study focused on three important areas of writing at the upper elementary grade levels. First, the web-based intelligent tutoring system for the text structure strategy (ITSS) was used to teach children how to read source materials, select important ideas in the text, generate main ideas, and write summaries. Second, instruction about planning and writing persuasive essays was delivered using the self-regulated strategies development (SRSD) model. Third, We Write web-based tools were used to facilitate the learning and mastery of the persuasive writing strategies taught to upper elementary grade children. The We Write computer tool is a teacher-led system choreographing the roles of the teacher and technology to achieve maximum instructional impact. Teachers received practice-based professional development with coaching and modeling to implement the intervention. In a cluster randomized trial with 12 fifth grade classrooms, this approach was effective in improving students’ writing. Results show that after 6 weeks of text structure instruction on the web using ITSS, effect sizes on writing quality and planning were 0.30 and 0.77. After an additional 12 weeks of SRSD-based writing instruction effect size on planning quality was 1.60 and writing quality 2.29. These strong results can inform the design of technology supported writing interventions for elementary grade students.
The importance of engaging and effective learning environments for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has been internationally recognised. However, no comprehensive pedagogical frameworks exist that support STEM learning environment design. In this study, a pedagogical framework and principles for STEM learning environment design were created based on participatory focus groups involving 10–18-year-old students, teachers, school directors, parents, university students and STEM professionals. Representatives of key stakeholder groups in Belarus, Finland, Germany, Greece and Spain (total n = 132) were invited to focus group discussions in which their wishes related to the pedagogical framework were collected. A second focus group discussion session, engaging the same stakeholder groups (total n = 137), was implemented to validate the framework. A final review for the framework and its design principles was conducted in online focus group sessions, involving 20 experts in curriculum, STEM, educational policy and/or educational technology from all participant countries. The co-designed framework, which is strengthened by the research literature, entails the following design principle categories: (1) General principles, (2) Cross-curricular skills, (3) Ways of teaching and learning, (4) Socio-emotional aspects and (5) Educational compatibility. The design principles created in this study have been employed in developing a hybrid (virtual, physical, formal, non-formal and informal) STEM environment, but they can be employed in any (STEM) learning environment design. Instead of focusing on singular design principles, we recommend considering a wide range of different design principles in order to support multiple ways of teaching and learning and to develop both subject-related and cross-curricular competencies.
E-learning opportunities have become an increasingly important component of university education. Various laboratory studies have shown that e-learning environments can meaningfully enhance learning by incorporating various interventions and design choices (e.g., providing feedback and scaffolds). However, many computer-based interventions have not yet been applied in authentic university courses, raising questions about whether and how the provision of certain forms of feedback works and scales in an applied context. In this paper, we addressed this research gap. Specifically, we investigated whether including an elaborative component (hints) in multiple-try feedback increases student learning in e-learning exercises in an undergraduate statistics course. In one exercise, after completing a statistical problem, one group received feedback that conveyed knowledge about the correct response, while the other group additionally received elaborative feedback in the form of hints. We conducted an experimental comparison of these two types of feedback with third-semester sociology students in the tutorial component of an introductory statistics course. The results show that additional feedback helps students perform better during the session and on a delayed test one week later. Implications for further research and the application of such e-learning environments in university settings are discussed.
Just how much multitasking can students handle during lecture? Effects of question frequency and relevancy, and note taking on retention
Classroom response systems (i.e., clickers) have become increasingly popular to facilitate student learning. Unfortunately, the common practice of pausing a lecture to ask questions takes up precious time to cover content. Asking questions “on the fly” without pausing is a possible solution. But can students both attend to lecture and answer questions simultaneously? Is this multitasking detrimental to student learning? In three experiments, we examined the effects of relevant and irrelevant “on-the-fly” questions and note taking on lecture retention. Undergraduates watched a video of a classroom lecture while either taking notes or not and receiving 0, 6, 18, or 36 questions that were either relevant or irrelevant to the lecture and then took a test. Students performed better on the test when receiving relevant rather than irrelevant questions. As for an optimal number of questions or whether note taking should also be allowed, there were no obvious advantages. Thus, when considering using “on the fly” clicker questions during a lecture vs. having no such questions, our evidence indicates no clear interference. Rather, such activities such as clickers may counter lecture boredom by allowing students to multitask with relevant activities.
Asynchronous online discussions (AODs) are a central component of online courses and have been widely implemented in case-based instruction (CBI). In online CBI, AODs offer learners a medium for making sense of complex problems, as they consider case topics collaboratively with peers and facilitators. Therefore, learners’ interactions with others have the potential to impact the overall effectiveness of the method, and specifically, participating in AODS during CBI may help learners develop problem-solving skills. However, little research has considered how learners’ interaction patterns in an AOD relate to the development of problem-solving skills during CBI. We used social network analysis (SNA) to consider the relationship between social interactions and learners’ problem-solving skills, as it offers a way to consider the structure of learners’ social interactions. We found that the number of posts, replies, and connections learners made in course discussions were related to problem-solving performance measured both in case analyses and overall course grade.
The present paper documents the design and development of a mobile mathematics application targeted to improve magnitude representation skills. Educational experts worked together with an app developer with the goal of creating an educational app as a math learning tool for children 5–8 years old. The description of the app design processes includes five core elements that we believe are central to the creation of a theory driven educational app. Creating a theory driven educational app is a difficult task; it involves a set of complex decisions as illustrated in this article.
This paper describes a framework for making explicit the design decisions in the development of immersive and interactive STEM learning technologies. This framework consists of three components: (1) visual viewpoint, the location from which a visual simulation depicts observable components; (2) embodied interaction, the ways in which a learner can physically engage with the simulation interface; and (3) learners’ roles, the purpose and the participation structure the technology presents to the learner. The recent literature on the design of STEM learning technologies is reviewed with the lens of how the three components have been leveraged and what, if any, rationale is provided for the design decisions that were made. The definition and review of each component is followed by a set of reflective questions intended to prompt researchers and designers to be more explicit about these decisions and the ways they are intended to impact student learning in both the design process and the reporting of their work. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the three components interact, and how their articulation can support theory building as well as the proliferation of more effective STEM learning technology designs.