Frontiers in Education: Digital Learning Innovations

A Simulation Design of Immersive Virtual Reality for Animal Handling Training to Biomedical Sciences Undergraduates

6 days ago

Background: One area of biomedical research concerns is applying new treatments to cure human diseases, moving bench-side research to the bedside practice. While using animal models is crucial in the research process, researchers should strictly adhere to the moral 4R framework to protect animal welfare—replacement, reduction, refinement, and responsibility. Virtual reality (VR) applies computer technology to create a simulated environment, allowing players to immerse and interact with animated 3D contexts. We developed a virtual animal-holding simulator (ViSi) using immersive virtual reality technology for students studying in the undergraduate biomedical sciences programme. The specific objectives of the paper are to 1) describe the development of the VR courseware for animal training and 2) describe the learning experience among students.

Method and Result: An evaluation of the courseware was conducted among Year one and two biomedical sciences students. Students who participated in ViSi responded positively about their involvement in the virtual environment experience and their concentration on the assigned task.

Discussion: ViSi is a reliable simulation technology that can train animal handling skills, which replaces real animals, while learners’ multi-cognition could still be enhanced with simulation training. Thus, the impact of immersive VR technology integrated into skills training is promising, although few technical problems are to be resolved.

Using Design of Location-Based Augmented Reality Experiences to Engage Art-Oriented Girls in Technology and Science

3 weeks ago

Taking part in creating location-based augmented reality (LBAR) experiences that focus on communication, art and design could serve as an entry point for art-oriented girls and young women towards career pathways in computer science and information communication technology. This conceptual paper presents our theory-based approach and subsequent application, as well as lessons learned informed by team discussions and reflections. We built an LBAR program entitled AR Girls on four foundational principles: stealth science (embedding science in familiar appealing experiences), place-based education (situating learning in one’s own community), non-hierarchical design (collaborations where both adults and youth generate content), and learning through design (engaging in design, not just play). To translate these principles into practice, we centered the program around the theme of art by forming partnerships with small community art organizations and positioning LBAR as an art-based communication medium. We found that LBAR lends itself to an interdisciplinary approach that blends technology, art, science and communication. We believe our approach helped girls make connections to their existing interests and build soft skills such as leadership and interpersonal communication as they designed local environmentally-focused LBAR walking tours. Our “use-modify-create” approach provided first-hand experiences with the AR software early on, and thus supported the girls and their art educators in designing and showcasing their walking tours. Unfortunately, the four foundational principles introduced considerable complexity to AR Girls, which impacted recruitment and retention, and at times overwhelmed the art educators who co-led the program. To position AR Girls for long-term success, we simplified the program approach and implementation, including switching to a more user-friendly AR software; reducing logistical challenges of location-based design and play; narrowing the topic addressed by the girls design; and making the involvement of community partners optional. Overall, our initial work was instrumental in understanding how to translate theoretical considerations for learning in out-of-school settings into an LBAR program aimed at achieving multiple complementary outcomes for participating girls. Ultimately, we achieved better scalability by simplifying AR Girls both conceptually and practically. The lessons learned from AR Girls can inform others using LBAR for education and youth development programming.

The Impact of Coding Apps to Support Young Children in Computational Thinking and Computational Fluency. A Literature Review

3 weeks 3 days ago

Data that shows that young children can learn and acquire Computational Thinking (CT) skills has led governments and policymakers internationally to integrate CT into the curriculum, starting in the earliest grades. Researchers support the idea that this introduction must not solely focus on a problem-solving process skill (CT) but instead provide children with new ways to express themselves, supporting their cognitive, language, and socio-emotional development (Computational Fluency-CF). Coupled with the media and government’s rhetoric and an increasing number of apps offering various programming lessons, puzzles, and challenges, educators have been responsible for introducing young children to CT and CF using touchscreen technology. This paper presents a literature review (N = 21) of empirical studies on applying four coding apps to support young children’s learning of CT and CF. The main conclusion is that all apps positively affect the development of children’s CT skills. None of the apps can ultimately support the development of CF, although ScratchJr, with a “sandbox” approach, can better help students express themselves.

Performance Over Enjoyment? Effect of Game-Based Learning on Learning Outcome and Flow Experience

3 weeks 6 days ago

Competitiveness in serious games and game-based learning contexts, have been suggested to be associated with variations in flow experience pertaining from game experience. Evidence from the game-based learning literature suggested that game-based learning in general enhances learning outcomes, and applicable to learning psychology at the undergraduate level. Yet the magnitude of such effect remains mixed from empirical evidence. The current study examines whether game-based learning, in competitive and non-competitive game format, would lead to differentiated gains on learning outcomes, perceived flow experience from game-based learning, and their interaction. We wish to test whether competitive and non-competitive formats of game-based learning could be characterized with different configurations of game flow experience that encapsulate the game-based learning experience, as well as the extent to which such predominant game flow experience would correlate with observed learning outcomes from featured game-based learning conditions. Effect of game-based learning was tested with an 2 × 2 experimental design. Participating learners (n = 142) were randomly assigned into either one out of four experimental conditions based on a 2 × 2 block design with two independent variables, competitiveness of game-based learning (competitive vs. non-competitive), and format of game-based learning (group vs. individual). Participating Learners in each of the conditions were assessed on learning outcomes related to the subject matters intended for the game-based learning artefacts. Results on learning outcomes revealed a significant main effect of competitiveness of game-based learning was observed, but not for format nor interaction effect. Main effect of format of game-based learning when learning in groups was observed from another two-way ANOVA analysis in a finite set of eGameFlow constructs including feedback, autonomy, goal clarity, and social interaction. Interaction effects between competitiveness of game-based learning and format was observed in autonomy and goal clarity constructs. Results from this study suggested that competitiveness and group format does not necessarily warrant improvement on learning outcomes in the game-based learning context. Main effects on cognitive flow dimensions align with the performance orientation among Asian learners. Further research would shed light on identifying levels of optimal gamified elements while assuring improvement on intended learning outcomes in the Asian tertiary education context.

Small Group Student-Produced Podcasts Were Favoured as Assignment Tool for Large-Scale Interprofessional Learning: An Exploratory Study Among Health, Social Care, and Teacher Education Program

1 month 1 week ago

Information and communications technology (ICT) can impact student learning outcomes, and podcasts have opened new possibilities for assessment in interprofessional learning (IPL) by supporting collaborative learning, enhancing communication skills, promote group working and technology competence. Pre-service IPL may thus benefit from ICT to develop interprofessional competencies among all future professionals. Research on student-produced podcast in IPL studies is limited. This study examined 1) how students from teacher education, health and social care educations, along with their supervisors, respond to different assignment formats (podcast, video, and written academic text) in IPL group work, and 2) the attitudes of students and supervisors toward these formats. The instructions and criteria were identical for all assignment tools and required case-based interprofessional group collaboration about real-life scenarios addressing child and youth education, health and well-being. Data were collected from online questionnaires in a mixed-methods exploratory cross-sectional study. The students’ and supervisors’ response rates were 25.8% (n = 363) and 37.1% (n = 13), respectively. Among the students, 75.2% submitted podcasts, 23.7% submitted written academic texts, and only 0.8% submitted videos. The students and most of their supervisors preferred podcasts as assignment tool over written text or videos. However, very few students chose the video assessment format, making insight into this format limited. Results did not differ according to age or educational background. Participants expressed that podcasts allowed more discussion, reflection and interprofessional collaboration. Students thought podcasts were fun to produce and allowed for more creativity. In conclusion, both students and their supervisors favored podcasting as the assignment format in IPL group work. The short time frame may however have influenced this choice. Pre-service technologically enhanced learning cannot replace practice-based learning. However, submission of case-based podcast assignments could prepare students for interprofessional collaboration about complex real-life scenarios.

Promoting Students’ Global Perspectives Through a Gamified e-Learning Platform

1 month 1 week ago

With the rapid growth of internationalization in tertiary institutions worldwide, the development of students’ global perspectives has attracted the attention of many universities. However, this development is a challenging one due to the complicated nature of global issues and their incompatibility with traditional subject-specific boundaries of classroom teaching. Through two eTournaments organized on a proprietary gamified e-learning platform named “PaGamO,” this study examined participating students’ learning experience and their change of global perspectives due to their participation in the eTournaments. Data were collected before and after the two eTournaments, and 217 survey responses were considered to be valid and were further analyzed. The findings showed that participating students achieved the satisfaction level of enjoyment (M = 3.62) and their awareness of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (M = 3.96) had been improved. In addition, the findings also revealed that 1) students enjoyed and perceived a better understanding of the SDGs in terms of perceptual dimensions like value-oriented and partnership-oriented, rather than the global issues about substantial threats or environmental issues; 2) the “intrapersonal effect” of students had been significantly reduced after the eTournaments; 3) positive significant correlations were found between the level of enjoyment and frequency of question-attempt in relation to the change of cognitive knowledge and interpersonal social interaction. The findings of this study offered some possible insights into students’ gameplay experience concerning dimensions of global perspectives and also support the findings of prior research on how gamified e-learning platforms could contribute to the development of students’ global perspectives.

The Effects of a Digital Articulatory Game on the Ability to Perceive Speech-Sound Contrasts in Another Language

1 month 2 weeks ago

Digital and mobile devices enable easy access to applications for the learning of foreign languages. However, experimental studies on the effectiveness of these applications are scarce. Moreover, it is not understood whether the effects of speech and language training generalize to features that are not trained. To this end, we conducted a four-week intervention that focused on articulatory training and learning of English words in 6–7-year-old Finnish-speaking children who used a digital language-learning game app Pop2talk. An essential part of the app is automatic speech recognition that enables assessing children’s utterances and giving instant feedback to the players. The generalization of the effects of such training in English were explored by using discrimination tasks before and after training (or the same period of time in a control group). The stimuli of the discrimination tasks represented phonetic contrasts from two non-trained languages, including Russian sibilant consonants and Mandarin tones. We found some improvement with the Russian sibilant contrast in the gamers but it was not statistically significant. No improvement was observed for the tone contrast for the gaming group. A control group with no training showed no improvement in either contrast. The pattern of results suggests that the game may have improved the perception of non-trained speech sounds in some but not all individuals, yet the effects of motivation and attention span on their performance could not be excluded with the current methods. Children’s perceptual skills were linked to their word learning in the control group but not in the gaming group where recurrent exposure enabled learning also for children with poorer perceptual skills. Together, the results demonstrate beneficial effects of learning via a digital application, yet raise a need for further research of individual differences in learning.

The Desire for Social Robots to Support English Language Learners: Exploring Robot Perceptions of Teachers, Parents, and Students

2 months ago

Currently there are 4.9 million English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States, however, only 2% of educators are trained to support these vulnerable students. Educational robots show promise for language acquisition and may provide valuable support for ELLs, yet, little is known about social robots for this population. Inviting participants as cultural informants can ensure that the robot is appropriately designed, situated and adopted into that educational community. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory study using interactive group interviews with 95 ELLs (kindergarten through fifth grade) from 18 different home language backgrounds. We also interviewed 39 ELL parents and eight elementary school educators to understand their views of educational robots. Responses to robot images suggested a preference for a popular educational robot. Parents expressed a strong desire for educational robots to support their children at school. While children embraced the idea of a robot at school, some expressed concerns about the potential for robots to be disruptive. School educators saw the potential for educational robots to support teachers in meeting instructional needs but also raised salient concerns. Exploring social robots with ELLs as cultural informants was a valuable exploration to determine important factors in social robot design and implementation for a diverse educational setting.

Short- and Long-Term Effects of Passive and Active Screen Time on Young Children’s Phonological Memory

2 months ago

The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by examining the relationship between phonological memory in preschool children and their passive (watching TV) and active screen time with using of Smart Screen Technologies such as tablets and phones with a touch screen interface. Study was conducted in two stages: in Time 1, the association between children’s phonological memory, passive and active screen time and family factors was examined; in Time 2 (1 year later) the impact of passive and active screen time on a child’s individual progress in phonological memory development was evaluated. The study enrolled 122 preschool children aged 5–6 years (M = 5.72, SD = 0.33); boys (54.9%). Information on each child’s average daily passive and active screen time was obtained from a survey with the mother. The survey provided information on how much time each child spent on a typical day with passive (“traditional”) and active (interactive) use of digital devices. For family factors, we included maternal highest educational qualification, family’s financial situation. For children’s characteristics, age, gender and non-verbal fluid intelligence were included. The results indicate that time spent passively with digital devices (watching TV) is negatively related to a child’s ability to process verbal information. In contrast, the interactive time the child spent with Smart Screen Technologies is not significant and does not pose a threat to the development of phonological memory in preschool age. The study also showed that passive and active use of digital devices has no long-term impact on children’s phonological memory development progress over a year. The implications are that use of Smart Screen Technologies, which implies a higher degree of interactivity, is not associated with either short- or long-term negative effects on phonological memory development in preschool age, contrary to passive screen time exposure. The results can be applied in the elaboration of principles and programs on the use of digital devices for the entertainment and education of preschool children.

Toward A Contemplative Technopedagogy Framework: A Discourse Analysis

2 months 1 week ago

Digital technology features prominently in the higher education ecosystem, affecting the ways in which educators think, communicate, and teach. This research applies discourse analysis to articles published within The Chronicle of Higher Education (CHE) to understand: (1) The ways in which conceptions of digital technology in higher education pedagogy have changed and the ways in which they have remained consistent from 1993 to 2016 and (2) The extent to which CHE articles addressed attributes of contemplation with regard to technopedagogy. Research findings indicate that during the previous 23 years digital technology was portrayed as an overwhelmingly positive addition to higher education pedagogy. Less than half of articles analyzed contained attributes of contemplation. Non-contemplative technopedagogical approaches can lead to uncritical adoption or knee-jerk dismissal of digital technology – either of which can have substantial and long-lasting consequences within teaching-learning environments. Contemporary pedagogies need to pay closer attention to digital technologies, but must do so in a purposeful and engaged manner. This historical and discursive research inductively led to the development of the Contemplative Technopedagogy Framework, which provides an approachable introduction to using attributes of contemplation when making pedagogical decisions about digital technology in higher education.

Schooling Beyond COVID-19: An Unevenly Distributed Future

2 months 1 week ago

The COVID-19 pandemic crisis has had a major impact on how schooling is done. With schools closed, teaching, and learning continue dependent on information and communication technologies (ICT). To the degree that this has been a success, there is the possibility that post-pandemic societies might choose to de-school, switching to online teaching and learning only. In this perspective piece, I describe two major risks if that future were to be embraced; that is, lack of equitable access and dehumanization. My argument is that these futures already exist in pockets around the globe and we can use those experiences to evaluate those options. I suggest instead that the post-pandemic period gives us an opportunity to re-imagine what schools and schooling are for and advocate for a re-schooled society in which our investment in schools builds and develops society.

Faculty and Student Perceptions of Academic Integrity in Technology-Assisted Learning and Testing

2 months 2 weeks ago

The recent COVID-19 pandemic presented challenges to faculty (Fac) and students (Stu) to uphold academic integrity when many classes transitioned from traditional to remote. This study compared Fac and Stu perceptions surrounding academic integrity when using technology assisted proctoring in online testing.

Methods: College Fac (N = 150) and Stu (N = 78) completed a survey about perceptions of academic integrity and use of proctoring software for online testing. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to determine if there were differences in the distribution of agreement between students and faculty.

Results: Fac and Stu agreed maintaining academic integrity was a priority (93 vs. 94%), and that it is easier to cheat in online tests (81 vs. 83%). Responses differed on whether online proctoring software was effective at preventing academic dishonesty (23% of Fac vs. 42% of Stu disagreed). 53% of Fac and 70% of Stu perceived that online proctoring was an invasion of privacy. Only 7% of Stu and 49% of Fac perceived importance in having a policy about proctoring online tests, whether cheating in an academic setting is likely associated with cheating in a work setting (78 vs. 51%), and if given a choice, 46% of Fac and only 2% of Stu would choose to use proctoring software. Answers to open-ended questions identified feelings of stress and anxiety by Stu and concerns about privacy by Fac.

Conclusion: Fac and Stu had similar perceptions of the importance of academic integrity and ease of cheating in online tests. They differed in perception of proctoring software’s effectiveness in deterring cheating, choosing to give or take a proctored online test, and having a policy in place. Policies on technology-assisted online testing should be developed with faculty and student input to address student concerns of privacy, anxiety, and stress and uphold academic integrity.

(E-)Learning to Understand and Love Yourself: An Attempt to Teach Healthy Lifestyle in the Midst of Social Unrest

2 months 3 weeks ago

In the 2012 curriculum reform, an extra year was added to the typical university degree programme in Hong Kong, and this became a good opportunity to provide more structured General Education to students in all major disciplines. Although the mode, units allocation, and actual course content of these GE courses in local universities differ, what they share is a comprehensive coverage across knowledge areas: the arts, the social and natural sciences, and skill sets that students can apply in personal and professional life. The author of this article taught in a Hong Kong university that offers a General Education programme with courses designed and delivered by individual academic departments and supported by relevant administrative units. This article is a reflection on teaching a General Education course in the category of Healthy Lifestyle, open to full-time students of all disciplines, during the fall semester of academic year 2019-2020. During most of the semester, daily life in Hong Kong had been disrupted to different extents, and the emotional landscape across different population groups had been rugged. University students were also affected physically and emotionally during this time, the teaching and learning environment was challenging, and teachers had to create an appropriate teaching and learning experience in view of the external environment and the students’ internal emotional needs. This article shares some useful practices in employing e-learning during a time of unrest, to facilitate the teaching of healthy lifestyle to students. The learning outcomes achieved, as seen in some student work, encourage us to seek further ways to employ e-learning for more effective learning experience for new generations of students, especially in the area of affective learning.

Supporting Flipped and Gamified Learning With Augmented Reality in Higher Education

2 months 3 weeks ago

Chemistry education is challenging when many students cannot see the relevance and interest between what they learn at school and their everyday life outside the curriculum. Due to the prevalence of chemicals in real life, students lose interest in those not-so-novel Chemistry problems as they are satisfied with their rudimentary grasp of knowledge. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to draw students’ attention to those day-to-day Chemistry concepts, a task in which augmented reality (AR) can be a competent pedagogical facilitator. Despite its popularity due to the development of smart devices, educators are still averse to adopting AR in teaching because of the doubts about its pedagogical effectiveness and difficulties in implementation. This paper will demonstrate an AR app developed by City University of Hong Kong (CityU) for a year four undergraduate Chemistry course under two UGC’s project funds and CityU’s Teaching Development Grant that aligns with the university’s Discovery and Innovation-enriched Curriculum. The learning theories and technology stack of development and deployment will be shared in this paper. The consideration during preparation, production, and publishing will also be documented. A pilot survey about students’ perception of the AR showed positive feedback for the AR app in terms of enhancing awareness, learning, understanding, and engagement, which addresses the concerns of retaining students’ engagement during teaching and learning real-life Chemistry. We hope that educators who are interested in adopting AR can gain insights from this AR development experience. This research can act as a foundation for further exploration of applying AR in secondary and tertiary Chemistry education.

L2 Vocabulary Teaching by Social Robots: The Role of Gestures and On-Screen Cues as Scaffolds

2 months 3 weeks ago

Social robots are receiving an ever-increasing interest in popular media and scientific literature. Yet, empirical evaluation of the educational use of social robots remains limited. In the current paper, we focus on how different scaffolds (co-speech hand gestures vs. visual cues presented on the screen) influence the effectiveness of a robot second language (L2) tutor. In two studies, Turkish-speaking 5-year-olds (n = 72) learned English measurement terms (e.g., big, wide) either from a robot or a human tutor. We asked whether (1) the robot tutor can be as effective as the human tutor when they follow the same protocol, (2) the scaffolds differ in how they support L2 vocabulary learning, and (3) the types of hand gestures affect the effectiveness of teaching. In all conditions, children learned new L2 words equally successfully from the robot tutor and the human tutor. However, the tutors were more effective when teaching was supported by the on-screen cues that directed children's attention to the referents of target words, compared to when the tutor performed co-speech hand gestures representing the target words (i.e., iconic gestures) or pointing at the referents (i.e., deictic gestures). The types of gestures did not significantly influence learning. These findings support the potential of social robots as a supplementary tool to help young children learn language but suggest that the specifics of implementation need to be carefully considered to maximize learning gains. Broader theoretical and practical issues regarding the use of educational robots are also discussed.

A Case Study on Research Postgraduate Students’ Understanding of Academic Integrity at a Hong Kong University

2 months 3 weeks ago

This case study aims to understand how research postgraduate (RPg) students at a Hong Kong university perceive academic integrity before and after participating in the Trail of Integrity and Ethics on the general issues of academic misconduct (TIE-General learning trail), which makes use of Augmented Reality (AR) technology and mobile application to help students acquire abstract concepts (Wong et al., 2018). A total of 33 RPg students, who had completed the mandatory courses on research ethics and teaching skills, successfully completed the TIE-General learning trail. The participants were required to demonstrate their levels of understanding of academic integrity and ethics before and after going through the learning trail. Results of the thematic analysis on the participants’ responses indicated that the RPg students were generally able to show some understanding of the six fundamental values of academic integrity defined by the International Center for Academic Integrity (ICAI), namely honesty, trust, fairness, respect, responsibility, and courage. Among these six values, the findings suggested that honesty and respect might be the most familiar values to the participants. However, the other four values seemed to be less familiar to them. On top of the above six values, empathy and mindfulness were considered as two other important attributes of academic integrity from the participants’ perspectives. This article analyses the possible impacts of empathy and mindfulness on the academic integrity development of university students.

Gamified Mobile Collaborative Location-Based Language Learning

3 months ago

As design-based research, this study describes the development and analysis of two location-based augmented reality (AR) serious learning games (SLG) for French second language (FL2) learning. Explorez and VdeUVic are collaborative quest-based SLGs. At different locations on campus, players interact with characters that give them quests including clues or options to further the storyline. These interactions take place in the form of either written text, or audio and video recordings, encouraging students to develop language skills both written and oral. Students choose their own learning path and advance at their own pace. Three cohorts of FL2 university students play-tested the games, with 58 of the 77 students choosing to participate in the study. The design-based research framework for the development of the game iterations and subsequent testing was an iterative process with each stage producing output that became input for the next stage. The evaluation of the AR language tools was implemented by means of a mixed-method case study, collecting data of both a qualitative and quantitative nature, through pre and post-play questionnaires, interviews, and video recordings of student gameplay interactions for analysis. Informed by situated cognition, one of the goals was to provide a contextual and immersive learning experience. Additionally, this research drew on sociocultural theory and the social nature of language learning, emphasizing learner interactions as a principal learning force. This research examined the learners’ perceptions of their learning experience, as well as the ways in which students collaborated to complete the tasks. Employing a situative approach framework informed by social regulation and content processing, student learning patterns were examined. Distinct types of learner interactions amongst teams during gameplay were shown. Patterns in the emergence of learners’ high-level co-regulation during collaborative learning are indicated in the findings. Key elements for the development and implementation of location-based serious games to foster collaborative learning are highlighted.

Application of the Educational Game to Enhance Student Learning

3 months ago

The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of an educational game to enhance student learning effectiveness. This study consisted of 56 college students majoring in physical education and recreation management (32 men, 24 women, age M = 21 years, SD = 1.72). Students used the educational computer game “PaGamO” to study the motor learning and development course. Students received rewards based on their individual and group “PaGamO” scores. Regression analysis indicated that “PaGamO” score was a significant (p < 0.01) predictor of multiple choice (MC) score in the final examination, there was a medium positive correlation (β = 0.354). The R2 suggests that 12.6% of MC score was explained by “PaGamO” score. Quantitative and qualitative mixed-method approach was used to gain insights into students’ perceptions and experiences of the educational game. The top three statements of a modified questionnaire from Riemer and Schrader (2015) are: (1) “In my opinion, the use of ‘PaGamO’ enables me to better prepare for the final examination” (M = 5.04, SD = 1.41), (2) “In my opinion, the use of ‘PaGamO’ enables me to understand learning contents” (M = 4.8, SD = 1.19), (3) “In my opinion, the use of ‘PaGamO’ allows me to apply knowledge” (M = 4.75, SD = 1.08). The top three motives to play “PaGamO” were “fun,” “self-learning,” and “want to get a higher grade in the final examination.” By using gamification as a tool for learning and studying, students did find “PaGamO” effective for their learning experience. Both intrinsic and extrinsic participation motives are reasons why students play “PaGamO.” Furthermore, due to its convenience, using mobile devices to play “PaGamO” is more popular than using computers and tablet devices. In conclusion, the combination of gamification and traditional learning methods can enhance students’ learning outcomes.

The Design of a Gamified Responsible Use of Social Media

3 months ago

Social media is part of almost everyone's daily life. Its networking facilities redefines the way people connect and interact with each other. However, social media is reported being misused in different ways, especially the millennials. There is a need to elevate the teens' level of empowerment on the responsible use of social media. Other technological innovations like augmented reality (AR) and digital gamification provides pedagogical benefits. Digital gamification in the classroom is a teaching strategy that translates content and delivery into a game using digital technology. On the other hand, AR is an emerging technology to enlarge real-life situations in multimedia. Research shows both technologies increase interactivity well as attention span among the learners. Additionally, these technologies, including social media, are among the many useful tools in teaching twenty first century learners once correctly used. With this, a game-based mobile application was developed to advocate responsible use of social media among teens. The learning content was gamified in augmented reality to provide an innovative teaching and learning way at Silliman University. This paper describes the gamification design of the learning trail on the topic of responsible use of social media. Specifically, it presents the publishing process of the augmented reality mobile application about responsible use of social media. Kuhlmann's 3C Model (Challenge, Choices, Consequences) was utilized to formulate the learning content. It also demonstrates the design phases, game mechanics, and the general evaluation of the learning application. Four challenges were developed. These are (a) be familiar with security and privacy policies, (b) do not express concerns about others, even if you think you are anonymous, (c) respond to digital offenders, (d) do not tell the world about an upcoming vacation. These challenges were translated into graphics and animations. The animated material was compiled, programmed, and published to a server of the mobile application. The gamified learning trail on responsible use of social media is accessible through QR codes leading to the augmented reality interface. The design was validated and found to be relevant and engaging.

The Art of Tacit Learning in Serious Location-Based Games

3 months 1 week ago

Over the past two decades, location-based games have moved from media art fringes to the mass cultural mainstream. Through their locative affordances, these game types enable practices of wayfaring and placemaking, with the capacity to deliver powerful tacit knowledge. These affordances suggest the potential for the development of location-based games in educational contexts. This paper presents three cases studies—TIMeR and Wayfinder Live and Pet Playing four Placemaking—to illustrate how each uses elements of wayfaring and placemaking to bring new opportunities for education through a tacit knowledge approach.