Bildung in der digitalen Welt: Welche Kompetenzen benötigen Schülerinnen und Schüler, Lehrkräfte und Dozierende in der Lehrkräftebildung?
(K)ein Geschlecht oder viele? Die Perspektiven Geschlecht(er), Gender oder Queer in der Wissenschaft
Tagung Lehrerfortbildung "Wie viel Wissenschaft braucht Lehrerfortbildung? Arbeitsbündnisse im analogen und virtuellen Raum"
Digitale Fachtagung „Dimension Digitalisierung – Schulleitungen stärken. Voneinander lernen in Europa“
Cognition and Instruction
Access, Dissent, Ethics, and Politics: Pre-service Teachers Negotiating Conceptions of the Work of Teaching Science for Equity
Geopolitical Configuration of Identities and Learning: Othering through the Institutionalized Categorization of “English Language Learners”
Examining the Impact of Systemic Tensions on Agency and Identity: The Multiple Positions of Reggie in Production-Centered, Technology-Mediated Activity
Stories of Garlic, Butter, and Ceviche: Racial-Ideological Micro-Contestation and Microaggressions in Secondary STEM Professional Development
Distance education across critical theoretical landscapes: touchstones for quality research and teaching
Analyzing children’s computational thinking through embodied interaction with technology: a multimodal perspective
The purpose of this paper is twofold. We first present a methodological framework for the analysis of embodied interaction with technology captured through video recording. The framework brings together a social semiotic approach to multimodality with the philosophical and theoretical roots of embodied cognition. We then demonstrate the application of the framework by exploring how the computational thinking of two fifth grade learners emerged as an embodied phenomenon during an educational robotics activity. The findings suggest that, for young children, computational thinking was extended to include the structures in the environment and guided by their embodiment of mathematical concepts. Specifically, the participants repeatedly used their bodies to simulate different possibilities for action while incorporating both perceptual and formal multiplicative reasoning strategies to conceptualize the robot’s movements. Implications for the design of embodied educational robotics activities and future application of the methodological framework are discussed.
We explored the impact of participating in a Virtual Internship (VI) computer-supported collaborative learning simulation, on high school students’ (n = 43) development of knowledge and skills for critiquing the political media with which they engage. Second, we evaluated the effect of this intervention on students’ self-efficacy for using specific media strategies to take political action. Finally, we explored the epistemic (knowledge-seeking) and non-epistemic aims that students set for themselves while participating within our VI, which was designed specifically to address students’ epistemic cognition. Analyses of both the quantitative and qualitative data revealed that students: (1) evinced gains in knowledge about what “fracking” is and also knowledge about why it is a controversial topic; (2) evinced gains in self-efficacy for civic engagement—a key indicator to students’ likelihood for acting; and (3) were able to understand the politicized nature of a social media post, and therefore reported wanting to pursue knowledge-seeking goals to understand both sides of the argument and the trustworthiness of the information sources. We discuss these results vis-à-vis the literature on epistemic games, which can help students develop the knowledge, skills, identity, and values of a profession.
A response to an article entitled “Improving teacher professional development for online and blended learning: a systematic meta-aggregative review”
This response reviews the article entitled “Improving teacher professional development for online and blended learning: a systematic meta-aggregative review” (Philipsen in Educ Technol Res Dev 67:1145–1174, 2019) from a practice perspective. Philipsen (Educ Technol Res Dev 67:1145–1174, 2019) conducted a systematic meta-aggregative review that targets teacher professional development for online and blended learning. This paper summarizes the key findings of their study and discusses the value of the findings and how they could be applied to prepare K-12 teachers for online and blended learning. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
Production blocking in brainstorming arguments in online group debates and asynchronous threaded discussions
Online group debates hosted in asynchronous threaded discussions can facilitate critical thinking between discussants (and increase deeper understanding of complex problems) by eliminating the need for turn-taking while formulating and presenting premises to support and challenge claims. Yet to be determined is to what extent does the current number of posts (premises from teammates, premises from the opposing team, supportive replies to premises, and opposing replies to premises) induce production blocking to disrupt the generation of new premises. Statistical discourse analysis was conducted on 1554 postings from online debates produced by four cohorts of students enrolled in an online graduate-level course. The resulting stochastic model revealed that: (a) the number of premises posted by the other team, premises posted by teammates, and supportive replies from teammates were associated with the largest to smallest drop in the likelihood of posting a new premise, respectively; and (b) the number of oppositional replies from the other team was associated with an increased likelihood of posting a new premise. These findings provide evidence to support the use of specific strategies for structuring and sequencing the argumentation task to generate larger numbers of premises to achieve a deeper and more thorough analysis of problems and claims.
This paper is in response to the manuscript entitled “Ethical oversight of student data in learning analytics: a typology derived from a cross-continental, cross-institutional perspective” (Willis et al., Educ Technol Res Dev 64(5):881–901, 2016) from an ethical perspective. The impact of the article is that it offered a working typology of ethical approaches and aims to determine the ethical intersection of internal student data usage and application. Their review of ethical approaches included research institutions from three continents. Findings from this review have implications for applied research with student data. This is particularly interesting given the differences in ethical approaches in the United States (more utilitarian) and the European Union’s rather strict deontological approach. While learning analytics offer rich student data for personalizing educational technologies, there is associated potential for threats to autonomy and privacy. A limitation of the topology is that it did not include other people groups (e.g., Asia, South America, Australia). Future learning analytics, design, application, and research will need to consider both where the technologies were developed and where educational technologies are being applied.
In this paper, we lay the foundations of the personal learning environment or PLE, its conception, cognitive and theoretical underpinnings, and implications for the design of pedagogical processes and learning ecosystems. We characterize the PLE as a technosocial reality that embodies the sociomaterial entanglement with which people learn as well as an approach that enacts contemporary ideas about how people learn. We argue that the learning ecology of the PLE and its disruptive educational character, position it as a framework that addresses the challenges of being in a continuous learning mode and empowers learners to direct their own learning and develop agency in lifelong learning. We envision the PLE as the core of a learning activity ecosystem that is diverse, personalized, social, adaptive, integrated, and transparent, enabling the creation of a network of learning that supports students as peers, creators and entrepreneurs, and agents of their own learning. We conclude with implications and challenges for future research and educational practice.
This research compared the process of disciplinary literacy acquisition of students who experienced two different pedagogical approaches to learning science, technology, engineering and mathematics through astronomy (STEM-A). The objective of this study was to explore the impact of a digital storytelling (DST) educational technology intervention in a STEM-A context on the process of disciplinary literacy acquisition of students who were learning English as a foreign language (EFL). The research was designed as a type IV case study with a sample of 30 students from Kyrgyzstan aged between 12 and 16 years. Data were collected from written responses to the astronomy diagnostic tests (ADT), which were coded against the structure of the observed learning outcomes (SOLO) and analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the occasion of testing. Data from the Australian sample, native speakers of English, (N = 328) were used as a baseline. The results showed a positive effect of the DST intervention on EFL students’ astronomy disciplinary literacy acquisition. The research contributes to the body of knowledge on educational technology by exemplifying how the DST teaching intervention could bridge the gap between EFL and non-EFL students’ disciplinary literacy acquisition in STEM areas.
Among the literature on self-regulated learning and social networking, the studies, which explore the impact of social networks on learning regarding connection sizes and relationship-establishing factors, are rarely seen in the context of social networking among strangers. This descriptive study addresses the gap by exploring data from 468 Chinese junior high school graduates in an online learning resource platform with an integrated social network. The data is digitally generated when the graduates engaged in online self-regulated learning activities for an average of 36 days without any facilitations. The data analysis explores the connection sizes and types of follow links, types of self-regulated learners, and their relationship with lesson completion. The study reveals that social networks trigger different levels of learning engagement. Specifically, the graduates with bidirectional follow links and the optimal connection size of five complete more lessons than other graduates. The study also finds that academic factors (similar learning goals and achievement gaps) are more important than social factors (common identity) in establishing social connections to support self-regulated learning activities. These findings have direct implications for the design of social networking that facilitates self-regulated learning, and enhances students’ self-regulated learning efficacy in online learning environments.
“A design framework for enhancing engagement in student-centered learning: own it, learn it, and share it” by Lee and Hannafin (2016): an international perspective
This commentary is written in response to the manuscript entitled “A design framework for enhancing engagement in student-centered learning: own it, learn it, and share it” (Lee and Hannafin in 64: 707–734, 2016) and offers an international perspective. To enhance student engagement in student-centered classrooms, Lee and Hannafin (64: 707–734, 2016) argue that learners need to be empowered with autonomy, scaffolding, and authentic audiences, manifested in an “own it, learn it, share it” design framework. This commentary examines how each of these frameworks might be implemented with the “shift to digital” learning, and considers how these guidelines might be adopted in international contexts. While owning, learning, and sharing are principles that can be appreciated by systems of education around the globe, the very definitions and understandings of owning, learning, and sharing knowledge need to be carefully considered in light of cultural differences. The commentary concludes with a call for future research to closely examine what student-centered learning in online environments might look like in different contexts.
Applying the Own it, Learn it, Share it framework to the flexible Pink Time assignment to scaffold student autonomy online and in person
This response to Lee and Hannafin’s A design framework for enhancing engagement in student-centered learning: own it, learn it, and share it (OLSit) (Lee and Hannafin, Educational Technology Research and Development 64:707–734, 2016) discusses its helpful design guidelines from a practitioner’s perspective. OLSit provides a blueprint for chance-taking with student-centered learning. Here, I apply this blueprint to a flexible assignment colleagues and I designed to promote intrinsic motivation and engagement, called Pink Time (PT), which asks students to “skip class, do whatever you want, and grade yourself.” Together, OLSit and PT are well suited for this moment of disruption and pivot to remote learning. Students’ stereotypes about what is “valid” in the classroom may be important limitations. But iterative and effective communication can shape students’ perceptions and scaffold their efforts. In the future, scholars and practitioners should consider how grades undermine online SCL strategies like OLSit and PT.
Buried treasure or Ill-gotten spoils: the ethics of data mining and learning analytics in online instruction
This paper considers the practical applications of the article, Ethical Oversight of Student Data in Learning Analytics: A Typology Derived from a Cross-continental, Cross-institutional Perspective by Willis et al. (Educ Technol Res Dev 64: 881–901, 2016). Students engaging in online learning leave behind vast quantities of data. In 2020, the rapid shift to online learning during the global pandemic allowed virtual data collection to outpace procedures and policies that promote ethical analysis. The mere availability of data does not confer ethical collection of data. Further, analysis of data under the assumption of learning outcomes does not necessarily ensure justice or learning for students. This article offers possible applications of the heuristic by Willis et al. (Educ Technol Res Dev 64: 881–901, 2016) for ethical learning analytics in order to mitigate harm to students. It extends their work by suggesting educators consider the racialized encoding of data themselves, and argues that every act of surveillance during the pandemic creates norms for future surveillance.
In response to Philipsen et al.'s (Educ Technol Res Dev 67:1145–1174, 2019) article titled “Improving teacher professional development [TPD] for online and blended learning [OBL]: a systematic meta-aggregative review”, we apply their proposed framework of important components of TPD for OBL to the support we provided to primary and secondary teachers as they engaged with online education during the COVID-19 pandemic. We reflect on observations of particular challenges for school teachers and the reasons behind them. While this framework is a useful reflection tool to guide professional learning for teachers beyond the emergency situations, we found that it is biased towards TPD for OBL in higher education settings. Thus, we suggest future work to differentiate educational levels in order to account for operational differences.
This paper offers the authors perspectives from a lens of practice on the paper, Open educational resources and college textbook choices: A review of research on efficacy and perceptions, by John Hilton III published in Educational Technology Research and Development volume 64, pages 573–590 in 2016. The commentary offered is specific to Hilton's work in the context of the pivot to remote instruction experienced on a massive scale during the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020.
In this paper I argue that open educational resources (OER), such as open textbooks, are an appropriate and worthwhile response to consider as colleges and universities shift to digital modes of teaching and learning. However, without scrutiny, such efforts may reflect or reinforce structural inequities. Thus, OER can be a mixed blessing, expanding inclusion and equity in some areas, but furthering inequities in others.
The shift to digital learning, spurred by the pandemic, will likely lead to the adoption of educational games into classrooms as a way to replace traditional learning activities. This will be a challenge because of a lack of training on the use of games for learning and the difficulty of finding good learning games. The 2019 SRCD Social Policy Report on digital games identifies policy areas that could address these challenges. Further, Ke’s (Educ Technol Res Dev 64:219–244, 2016) systematic review of games research provides insights into how teachers can use games for learning and which types of educational games are effective. Leveraging the report and the review, policies for the digital shift are suggested that will help guide the adoption of games into classrooms.
Impacts of augmented reality and a digital game on students’ science learning with reflection prompts in multimedia learning
Although a great deal of research has evidenced the effects of proper instructional design on multimedia learning, most has focused on the cognitive aspects of learning, with little concern about the role of affective-motivational states in multimedia learning. In this study, an AR game-based learning method was designed via integrating AR technology and a digital game for assisting students’ learning, and for probing the factors of metacognitive and motivational factors of multimedia learning. A context-aware mobile learning system with reflection prompts was developed based on the implemented approach. Furthermore, a 2 × 2 experiment was conducted to identify the impacts of the implemented approach on elementary school science learning. Four groups learned with different media mechanisms (i.e., AR or Non-AR) and gaming mechanisms (i.e., Game or Non-game) during an elementary school field trip. The research results displayed that interaction between the AR and game approaches did not exist, and both significantly promoted the students’ learning motivation; however, only the game approach significantly improved the students’ learning achievements and flow states. This study evidenced the significance of flow state in a reflective context in multimedia learning. Such a result also stresses that digital games play an important role in promoting affective-motivational states in multimedia learning.
Shifting digital, shifting context: (re)considering teacher professional development for online and blended learning in the COVID-19 era
This paper is in response to the manuscript entitled, “Improving teacher professional development for online and blended learning: A systematic meta-aggregative review” (Philipsen et al. in Educ Technol Res Dev 67:1145–1174, 2019) from a research perspective. The impact of this study is that it resulted in a guiding framework for teacher professional development (TPD) for online and blended learning (OBL). The basis of this study may be applied to explore the quick shift to digital teaching and learning amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. A potential limitation of the resulting framework in this study is that TPD for OBL needs may currently differ, as teachers are experiencing appreciably different learning and performance contexts related to the mandated shift in professional practice to address continuity of instruction. The application of the methodology in this study combined with quick response research approaches (Quarantelli, in: Stallings (ed) Methods of disaster research, Philadelphia, Xlibris, 2002) could potentially extend the Philipsen et al. (Educ Technol Res Dev 67:1145–1174, 2019) TPD framework to address educator preparation for successful professional practice in online and blended environments in times of crisis.
Does learner expertise matter when designing emotional multimedia for learners of primary school mathematics?
Recent research on multimedia learning has considered the integration of cognitive and affective aspects of media processing. The literature suggests that learners’ emotions influence the effectiveness of multimedia learning, which is explained by the cognitive-affective theory of learning with media (CATLM). A multimedia design that changes learners’ emotional status can facilitate or suppress learning. Individual difference, which suggests that learners with different expertise levels respond differently to an emotional design, is an assumption of CATLM. However, how learner expertise influences the effectiveness of emotional designs remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of learner expertise (novice vs advanced) and an emotional design incorporating a face-like shape and warm colours (with vs without) on developing skills in remembering and understanding in mathematics learning. The novice group comprised younger learners who had no prior knowledge of the topic; the advanced group comprised older learners who had studied the topic previously. We randomly allocated 122 primary school students to four experimental groups to see how they learned geometrical patterns from videos with different designs. These results showed that (1) the emotional design group performed better in remembering, and (2) the emotional design benefited the advanced group, but not the novice group, in understanding. A plausible explanation is that the benefits of the emotional design do not outweigh its drawback in the novice group when developing understanding. Further analysis revealed that learner expertise and learning outcomes influence the designs’ effects. Our findings suggested that using emotional design can effectively facilitate lower-order thinking skills such as remembering, identifying and procedural skills, and drawing students interests and motivation may not lead to better learning outcomes.
Technology infusion in K-12 classrooms: a retrospective look at three decades of challenges and advancements in research and practice
Educational technology offers unique affordances as a learning tool and delivery system for enhancing and personalizing instruction. Over the past two decades, efforts by school districts and states to infuse technology into everyday K-12 education through one-to-one laptop initiatives have rapidly proliferated. In this paper, I examine such initiatives from studies in the literature and from my own research, starting with the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow in the mid-1980′s and continuing today with comprehensive mixed-method evaluations in school districts. Drawing from this work, I focus on several themes that create both challenges and opportunities for technology infusion to occur in more effective and sustainable ways. These include: (a) conceptualizing technology as an educational tool and delivery system, not as a “treatment” in itself; (b) defining and communicating to stakeholders what proximal and long-term outcomes the technology initiative is (and is not) expected to promote; (c) not over-promising impacts on student achievement on standardized assessments where technology applications are directed primary toward other educational goals; and (d) conducting ongoing evaluation studies to provide evidence of program implementation progress and effectiveness at different phases of the initiative.
Failure is an inevitable human experience, which can offer great learning opportunities. Yet, in current educational contexts, failure has largely been eschewed to minimize students’ frustration and confusion. Such a failure-avoidance approach is also reflected in the cases used for instruction. To maximize learning, more studies are needed to explore effective ways to better utilize failure cases for educational purposes. This qualitative study aimed to explore how students perceived their experience of learning a case-based online module that uses failure cases and discover in what ways using failure cases in the module impacted students' perceived learning experience. To answer the research questions, 16 3rd-year veterinary students were recruited for individual interviews. Learning experience survey data and students' written responses to reflection and review questions embedded in the module were collected from 38 students. Through thematic analysis of the interview data and students' written responses, three themes regarding students' learning experience were identified, including engaged in the module both cognitively and emotionally, enjoyed listening to experts' feedback, and eye-opening and reassuring experience of hearing experts' failure stories, which were supported by survey results. Regarding the impact of using failure cases on students' perceived learning experience, four major themes are identified including enhancing engagement, emotional reassurance and confidence builder, creating bigger impact, and encouraging improvement. Based on the discussions of the findings of the study, implications for instructional design regarding the use of failure cases are provided to help educators create more effective case-based learning environments.
Holistic and dynamic: teacher-researcher reflections on operating mobile-assisted learning tasks supported by WeChat for Chinese as a foreign language
Teacher perspectives have been lacking in the mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) literature. To fill this gap, this study investigates how Chinese teachers implemented WeChat-supported language tasks and the challenges they encountered in the process. Based on technology-mediated task-based language teaching and authentic assessment frameworks, we designed tasks that aimed to achieve both pedagogical goals (focusing on linguistic forms and achieving authenticity) and technological goals. Teachers’ reflective journals revealed that implementing WeChat-supported tasks was a holistic and dynamic process, entailing four interrelated phases and requiring continuous management of unexpected events. This indicates that teachers should develop new skills and play complex, well-rounded roles to meet both the pedagogical and technological goals of technology-mediated tasks in MALL in the digital era.
Laptop computers allow students to type lecture notes instead of relying on the traditional longhand (i.e. paper–pencil) method. The present research compared laptop and longhand note-taking methods by investigating how the quality (i.e. complete versus incomplete idea units) and quantity (i.e. total words and total idea units) of typed and handwritten notes differed when students did or did not reply to text messages during a simulated lecture. Accounting for the presence of text messaging while participants took notes situated the present study within the reality facing many students in today’s digital age. Findings indicated that a considerable proportion of the idea units captured in participants’ notes were incomplete, regardless of note-taking method or exposure to distraction during the simulated lecture. However, only the total number of complete idea units stored in student notes meaningfully predicted lecture learning. Furthermore, the presence of digital distraction was particularly disruptive to the quality and quantity of laptop users’ lecture notes relative to longhand note takers. Finally, digital distraction emerged as a more meaningful predictor of lecture learning than note-taking method. Recommendations for improving the quality of student lecture notes are discussed and avenues for future research into note-taking completeness and the interplay between digital distraction and note-taking method are proposed.
Promoting students’ use of epistemic understanding in the evaluation of socioscientific issues through a practice-based approach
The epistemic understanding of science has always been an important part of science education, and critical engagement with socioscientific issues (SSI) is a desirable outcome of scientific literacy. However, investigations into the link between these two concepts have been inconclusive. Many students have very limited interest in epistemic understanding as they engage with SSI. This intervention study aims to address this gap between knowledge and practice, to promote students’ use of epistemic understanding, and to evaluate SSI through a practice-based approach, using the Apt-AIR framework (Barzilai and Chinn in J Learn Sci 27(3):353–389, 2018). The participants were 109 undergraduate students with various majors. A variety of measures were administered before and after a general education course titled “Making Sense of Science-related Social Issues”, including an essay writing task to assess the participants’ use of epistemic understanding when evaluating SSI, and a reflective task with follow-up interviews to identify the teaching components that could explain the students’ changes in ability, if any. Statistical analyses of pre- and post-course performance revealed a significant shift toward epistemic understanding (p < .00001). The qualitative data provided insight into the teaching components leading to this shift, and suggested interconnections between aspects of the Apt-AIR framework. The results of this study support a shift in practice for learning about science, and they highlight the need to link epistemic understanding and practice for a multi-perspective evaluation of SSI.
Is drawing after learning effective for metacognitive monitoring only when supported by spatial scaffolds?
In this study, we investigated whether drawing after learning supports metacognitive monitoring especially when students are supported in their drawing efforts. Therefore, eighty-eight participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. They were asked to learn from a text comprising five paragraphs about the formation of auroras. After reading each of the five paragraphs, one group had to mentally imagine the contents (control group), a second group had to draw from scratch, and a third group had to draw with the help of spatial scaffolds. All participants provided judgments of learning (JOL) for each paragraph, and took a knowledge test afterwards. Results revealed that students who drew, both with and without scaffold, monitored their learning more accurately on an absolute level. Even though there were no differences between the two drawing conditions for monitoring accuracy, JOLs were based on the actual drawing quality only when students drew with the help of spatial scaffolds. Results thus hint towards the potential of (scaffolded) drawing to support metacognitive monitoring. Reasons for why drawing with spatial scaffolds did not improve monitoring compared to drawing from scratch are discussed.
Transdisciplinary learning environments have potential to bring together the arts, sciences, and computing within schools. We investigate the student and teacher enactment of sensemaking practices that break down disciplinary silos. We describe a pedagogical approach, Luminous Science, where students make dynamic, computationally-rich artistic representations of data from a classroom garden. Then we present an analysis of students’ sensemaking practices used during the transdisciplinary unit in three cases of art, science and computing classrooms. Qualitative analysis of a student group and teachers’ curricular materials in each of these classrooms elucidates how teachers’ enactment choices, organization, and facilitation of the unit we co-designed with them facilitated opportunities for students’ transdisciplinary thinking and learning. We show that when teachers’ enactments supported increased computational complexity and ties between artifact and phenomenon, then students participated in deeper transdisciplinary sensemaking. We discuss the implications for the design of curricular materials and professional development to support effective organization and discourse practices by teachers in orchestrating transdisciplinary sensemaking.
In learning from examples, students are often first provided with basic instructional explanations of new principles and concepts and second with examples thereof. In this sequence, it is important that learners self-explain by generating links between the basic instructional explanations’ content and the examples. Therefore, it is well established that learners receive self-explanation prompts. However, there is hardly any research on whether these prompts should be provided in a closed-book format—in which learners cannot access the basic instructional explanations during self-explaining and thus have to retrieve the main content of the instructional explanations that is needed to explain the examples from memory (i.e., retrieval practice)—or in an open-book format in which learners can access the instructional explanations during self-explaining. In two experiments, we varied whether learners received closed- or open-book self-explanation prompts. We also varied whether learners were prompted to actively process the main content of the basic instructional explanations before they proceeded to the self-explanation prompts. When the learners were not prompted to actively process the basic instructional explanations, closed-book prompts yielded detrimental effects on immediate and delayed (1 week) posttest performance. When the learners were prompted to actively process the basic instructional explanations beforehand, closed-book self-explanation prompts were not less beneficial than open-book prompts regarding performance on a delayed posttest. We conclude that at least when the retention interval does not exceed 1 week, closed-book self-explanation prompts do not entail an added value and can even be harmful in comparison to open-book ones.
When students are solving problems they often turn to examples when they need assistance. Examples are helpful because they illustrate how a problem can be solved. However, when examples are very similar to the problems, students default to copying the example solutions, which hinders learning. To address this, prior work has investigated the effect of manipulating problem–example similarity, showing that learning can be increased by reducing the assistance provided by examples. We contribute to this literature by comparing two types of assistance mechanisms in the context of problem-solving activities: (1) fade-out assistance, where initially the examples are similar to the problems but over time the problem–example similarity is reduced, and (2) fade-in assistance where the opposite is the case (initially the problem–example pairs have reduced similarity but the similarity is increased as more problems are solved). The fade-in assistance condition produced significantly higher learning gains than the fade-out condition and based on eye-tracking data, the fade-in group spent longer attending to the problem, particularly early on in the problem-solving session. Our conjecture that the fade-in group was engaged in more autonomous problem solving instead of copying was confirmed by exploratory analysis on a subset of the data showing that copying was initially reduced in the fade-in condition, as compared to high in the fade-out condition. Overall, our results highlight that initially struggling in a problem-solving activity results in more learning.
Mine the process: investigating the cyclical nature of upper primary school students’ self-regulated learning
The present study investigates primary school students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) process by exploring the sequence in which SRL activities are conducted during learning. The aims of this study are twofold: investigating the presence of the theoretically hypothesized cyclical nature in students’ SRL process, as well as potential differences herein for high, average, and low achievers. Think-aloud data of 104 upper primary school students were analysed by means of process mining analysis. The results indicate that students commonly adopt a cyclical approach to learning by implementing preparatory, performance, and appraisal activities during learning. However, the results indicate clear differences in the quality of students’ SRL process. High achievers, compared to low and average achievers, show a more strategic and adaptive approach to learning during all phases of their learning process. They more strategically and effectively orient on and plan assignments, combine different cognitive strategies, and adopt self-evaluation to regulate their learning process.
Student tasks are assigned frequently in higher education to facilitate learning. For the students, the task grade is one of the motivating components for successfully performing a task. In this study, we presented students with a hypothetical task under different but equivalent grade computations (framings). Based upon principles derived from behavioral economics, the grade computations were framed as a loss or gain and explicitly or implicitly. Responding to each of these framings, 365 undergraduates reported their level of task engagement, task completion, and their anticipated regret for not completing the task (student outcomes). Findings revealed that when the task grade was framed as producing a potential loss in points, respondents reported higher student outcome levels than when framed as producing a potential gain in the grade. Furthermore, framing the grade’s consequence explicitly (without requiring the students to calculate it) had a stronger positive effect on student outcomes than when framing it implicitly.
Problem solving abilities are critical components of contemporary Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. Research in the area of problem solving has uncovered much about the representation, processes and heuristic approaches to problem solving. However, critics claim this overemphasis on the process of solving problems has led to a dearth in understanding of the earlier stages such as problem conceptualization. This paper aims to address some of these concerns by exploring the area of problem conceptualization and the underlying cognitive mechanisms that may play a supporting role in reasoning success. Participants (N = 12) were prescribed a series of convergent problem-solving tasks representative of those used for developmental purposes in STEM education. During the problem-solving episodes, cognitive data were gathered by means of an electroencephalographic headset and used to investigate students’ cognitive approaches to conceptualizing the tasks. In addition, interpretive qualitative data in the form of post-task interviews and problem solutions were collected and analyzed. Overall findings indicated a significant reliance on memory during the conceptualization of the convergent problem-solving tasks. In addition, visuospatial cognitive processes were found to support the conceptualization of convergent problem-solving tasks. Visuospatial cognitive processes facilitated students during the conceptualization of convergent problems by allowing access to differential semantic content in long-term memory.
Negotiating status hierarchies in middle school inquiry science: implications for marginal non-participation
While previous classroom studies of status hierarchies tell us who has low status and how to increase those learners’ participation in small group contexts via teacher-led interventions, we know little about how one becomes low status, or the role peers play in legitimating or delegitimating inequitable relations. This study used the sociocultural concept of marginal non-participation to describe interactional moves learners use to navigate status hierarchies in an inquiry science context where student authority may permit learners to obstruct peers’ participation. Participants were three collaborative groups of 3–4 learners in 7th grade science classrooms where a series of inquiry curriculum units were being implemented. Interviews were used alongside a microgenetic analysis of video-recorded group work observations to identify interactions that legitimated and delegitimated status hierarchies. Legitimation involved communicating acceptance of differential belonging and competence while delegitimation involved challenging differential reward by fostering widespread participation. Low- and high-status group members were active in both processes. Results suggest that diffuse status characteristics and science capital inform how status hierarchies are negotiated and that learners adapt disciplinary norms for status legitimating and delegitimating ends. Implications for learners’ participation in scientific practices and identification with science are discussed.
Can we further improve tablet-based drawing to enhance learning? An empirical test of two types of support
Digital drawing can foster learning, but only if the drawing is of sufficient quality. Hence, the focus of the present study was to investigate whether and how two types of drawing support may foster drawing quality and, in turn, learning outcomes. To this end, participants (N = 156) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in which they either just read text (control), were prompted to make a free-hand representational drawing (unsupported drawing), or they were additionally supported in their drawing efforts because a background (global support) or single elements for the drawing (local support) were already provided. Learning outcomes were assessed by means of recognition, transfer, and a drawing test. Results revealed that students from all three drawing conditions (unsupported, global, and local support) scored better on the transfer and drawing tests than the control condition. Both types of drawing support did neither increase drawing quality nor learning in comparison to unsupported drawing. Reasons for the latter findings are discussed.
Interactive Learning Environments
Investigating college EFL learners’ perceptions toward the use of Google Assistant for foreign language learning
Impacts of interactions between peer assessment and learning styles on students’ mobile learning achievements and motivations in vocational design certification courses
Can the use patterns of social networks in university students predict the utility perceived in digital educational resources?
How the number of lessons flipped influence the overall learning effectiveness and the perceptions of flipped learning experiences?
A framework for the theory-driven design of digital learning environments (FDDLEs) using the example of problem-solving in chemistry education
Predicting the actual use of m-learning systems: a comparative approach using PLS-SEM and machine learning algorithms
Transforming pre-service teacher education through virtual exchange: a mixed-methods analysis of perceived TPACK development
Do field-dependent individuals tend to have lower creativity than field-independent ones? The role of informational cues in electronic brainstorming
The effects of combining virtual laboratory and advanced technology research laboratory on university students’ conceptual understanding of electron microscopy
Investigating students’ online learning behavior with a learning analytic approach: field dependence/independence vs. holism/serialism
International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
Bringing maker practices to school: tracing discursive and materially mediated aspects of student teams’ collaborative making processes
The present investigation aimed to analyze the collaborative making processes and ways of organizing collaboration processes of five student teams. As a part of regular school work, the seventh-grade students were engaged in the use of traditional and digital fabrication technologies for inventing, designing, and making artifacts. To analyze complex, longitudinal collaborative making processes, we developed the visual Making-Process-Rug video analysis method, which enabled tracing intertwined with social-discursive and materially mediated making processes and zoomed in on the teams’ efforts to organize their collaborative processes. The results indicated that four of the five teams were able to take on multifaceted epistemic and fabrication-related challenges and come up with novel co-inventions. The successful teams’ social-discursive and embodied making actions supported each another. These teams dealt with the complexity of invention challenges by spending a great deal of their time in model making and digital experimentation, and their making process progressed iteratively. The development of adequate co-invention and well-organized collaboration processes appeared to be anchored in the team’s shared epistemic object.
Problem-based learning (PBL) designs are addressing the demands and potentials of an information-saturated era where accessing inquiry resources and new information is reconfiguring tutor-facilitated dialogues. Unclear is how incorporation of CSCL tools and the rich digital multimodal resources they collaboratively access and generate are re-shaping the traditional problem-based cycle of inquiry and intersubjective sense-making. This study in higher education adopts Interactional Ethnography (IE) as a logic-of-inquiry to examine how a group of medical undergraduate students and their facilitator (n = 12) collaborated to access, review, appropriate and devise multimodal digital and visual texts within and across one problem cycle (three face-to-face tutorials and self-directed learning). Drawing on concepts of ‘multimodality’ and ‘intervisuality’ from literacy theory, we extend theoretical understandings of how multimodal texts become actors within a developing PBL event, not just objects of study or cultural tools. Through this multi-focal approach, we make visible how what occurs at one point in time with these texts in the developing dialogic space is consequential for what students can and do undertake in subsequent engagements with such texts in and across one bounded cycle of learning activities. Arising from this analysis, we propose the concept of dialogic intervisualizing to characterize the dynamic interplay between and among information problem-solving processes, textual negotiations and purposeful, facilitated dialogue for deep knowledge co-construction within and across collaborative, computer supported learning activity in an inquiry cycle.
Data visualization technologies are powerful tools for telling evidence-based narratives about oneself and the world. This paper contributes to the literature on data science education by examining the sociotechnical practices of data wrangling—strategies for selecting and managing large, aggregated datasets to produce a model and story. We examined the learning opportunities related to data wrangling practices by investigating youth’s talk-in-interaction while assembling models and stories about family migration using interactive data visualization tools and large socioeconomic datasets. We first identified ten sociotechnical practices that characterize youth’s interaction with tools and collaboration in data wrangling. We then suggest four categories of activities to describe patterns of learning related to the practices, including addressing missing data, understanding data aggregation, exploring social or historical events that constitute the formation of data patterns, and varying data visual encoding for storytelling. These practices and activities are important to understand for supporting future data science education opportunities that facilitate learning and discussion about scientific and socioeconomic issues. This study also sheds light on how the family migration modeling context positions the youth as having agency and authority over the data and contributes to the design of CSCL environments that tackle the challenges of data wrangling.
Encouraging collaboration and building Community in Online Asynchronous Professional Development: designing for social capital
This research investigates a design and development approach to improving science teachers’ access to effective professional development (PD) in a fully online, asynchronous environment. Working with a small number of teachers, this study explores how a design combining social capital mechanisms with essential teacher learning and PD characteristics supported teachers’ abilities to participate in the online course and collaboratively build knowledge. Teachers’ perceptions of their experiences both in surveys and interviews demonstrated high satisfaction with the quality and usability of the PD, including positive beliefs related to the social capital elements of tie quality, depth of interaction, and access to expertise. Further transactivity analyses of their interactions in course discussions showed higher levels of collaborative discourse resulting from prompts that specifically targeted the exchange of information over those that asked teachers to reflect about their content understanding or their classroom practice. Implications for this design for asynchronous online PD approaches to reach more teachers are discussed.